Question 82 in the chapter 11 of science chemistry, the signs in context. Okay, so question 82 minutes asking for these three scenarios. Which direction will the solvent flow? Okay. And so when we're talking about solvent movement, we're talking about Austin Moses. Okay, so you usually go, the solvent will flow from a low to high station. Or, in the case of osmotic pressure, it'll go from low to high. Osmotic. Okay. And just remember that the equation for osmotic pressure. So osmotic pressure equals our i r event hough factor. Okay, um, times our molar ity not morality. More polarity. Times are the are constant times temperature. Okay, but they're not giving us temperature will. So we can kind of ignore temperature and are so the our is a constant, and that's the same for every solution. So we can ignore our and we can also ignore t because they don't tell us, temperature. And we're gonna make the assumption that all of these solutions are in the same terrible. Okay, So, really, the only things we need to compare our event off factor for these solutions or the polarity okay. Or both. In the first Ah, In the first scenario, we both have an a c l O k. So we don't even have to worry about our, um our I Okay, our, um our event hough factor and the reason why is because event ha factor will be the same for both and ate meals. Is it growth? So, really, all we have to do is compare mole Aridjis in these. Okay, so we have one leader. That is that 0.48 Moller. I mean, we don't know the polarity here, so let's first off calculate similarity. It's in one leader. So all we need to know is how many moles of any scale we have. So we need to go to the periodic table and find the mole molecular weight of N A C l. Hey. And so when you do that, you should get mm. It should be 22.99 grams per mole, which is for a sodium plus 35.45 grams per mole for the, um, for the chloride. Okay. And that adds up to 58.44 grounds. Permal. Okay, so that's a molecular weight of sodium chloride. Um, and So to convert this into moles, we just do 55.85 grams times 58 0.48 which is our molecular weight grams over Mel's. I'm under rules, right, Because we want moles on top and we want grams to castle out. So this ends up being zero Ah, 0.955 moles. Okay. And since this is in one leader Ah, if we were to divide this by one leader is the same thing. So we end up with 0.955 as arm polarity, okay? And that is higher than the polarity that we have here in chains. That we know that for the first scenario, we're going to go from here to here. OK, so that's going from a to B on. Because in the problem, they say that this solution is ah, labeled a solution, and this solution be so it's gonna move from a to B is the solvents are going to go from low to high. Okay, well, let's move onto the next one. So in this case we have we're comparing any seal and calcium chloride. Okay, Um and so we first have to compare their event. Both. Okay, So calcium chloride will dissociate into calcium ions and to chloride ions. So it's I theoretical eyes three. Okay. And in the case of n a c l the theoretical I is to Okay, um, and we have molinari of calcium chloride already. So the only thing we need to do is find our mill aren t of our, um, sodium chloride and we The volume doesn't matter as long as we have malaria. So we have the molecular way of sort of accord from a previous problem so we can go ahead and just use that to calculate out our polarity. And so that's 16 grams times moles over 58.48 grams. And this ends up asst 0.2737 bulls. Okay. On minutes in 100 mills, 100 mills is the same as 0.1 leader. Okay, The way I did that was I just divided it by 1000 because there are 1000 mils in a leader. Okay? And so if I divided this by 0.1 leader, we would end up with the polarity of zero. So actually would be 2.7, 37 Moeller. Okay, so we see that the polarity is very high here. I mean, if we were to multiply that by two. The I factor. So if we're gonna try to calculate out the first part of this equation, um, this would end up being about So we multiply this by I, which was two. This ends up being 5.4 approximately. Whereas here, if we multiply on polarity and I, this ends up being 2.94 Okay, so the, uh, the product of our I and r M r polarity ends up being too when I four on this side and 5.4 on this side. Okay, these are the numbers were comparing. And again, we're going to go from high to low. Remember, we're ignoring our anti because we're making assumption it's the same for all solutions. I'm so osmosis will happen from low to high. Sorry. I mean says going to go this way again. So it's going to go from a and I go from a to B yet again. And so let's do the last problem. We're gonna have Teoh compare that caught Hoff factors and, um, polarity again. And so Davis Millet balls here. We can convert this two moles if you want. I'm And so there are 1000 mill immobile's in a mole. So if you just divide this by one 1000 you can get this and moles, um polarity. And so this would be 0.656 animals on our vat cloth here is just gonna be magnesium and the sulphate. Ah, dissociating. And so I ends up being to here. OK, now, for a magnesium chloride, you're gonna have one magnesium and to chloride ions dissociating. So I is three here, Okay, But we also don't know our polarities, so we need to calculate that out. Um, and the molecular weight for magnesium chloride. So molecular weight for magnesium chloride? I did that for you guys. I just added the molecular weight for magnesium and then to chlorides. I'm just ended up being a 95.205 grams per mole. Okay, well, let's move this. Let's zoom out a little bit. There we go. Okay. So that is our molecular weight. Okay, Now we just have to convert grams to moles and then find out our polarity, So that's gonna be 5.24 grams times our moules over 95.205 grams. Right. So Grams cancels out, and we end up with 0.550 point 055 moles of the magnesium. Cool ride. Okay. And this is in 250 milliliters. 250 million litres. This convert to 0.25 uh, leaders, right? We want it in. Leaders can again. I just did this by dividing 1000. Because there's 1000 mills in a leader to 0.25 leaders. Okay, His arm polarity for this is 0.22 Okay, which is much bigger than our magnesium sulfate. Okay, the magnesium sulphate, remember, was in mill. Uh, yeah, Mila molars. Um, and so that would be 1000 of a mole or 61 thousands of a Moeller. Okay. I mean, we end up with 610.22 so I don't even have to multiply it by the I factor was the magnesium chloride is obviously much more concentrated than are magnesium sulfate. Okay, you know that the solvents is gonna move again in this direction from a to be okay. And so that is how you solve