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Lab stationLe €htelier* Principle:To the well on the right 4dd 20 drops of ! M sodium EDTA cl M Record any changs Precipaie nos Won t oxo] Given = EDTA with m...

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Lab stationLe €htelier* Principle:To the well on the right 4dd 20 drops of ! M sodium EDTA cl M Record any changs Precipaie nos Won t oxo] Given = EDTA with magnesium jccount for ~uur observation [cfms Lc Chitclicr $ PrincipleM MgClz 10 drops of 0.5 M NOH; nd drop of phenolphthalein Add 20 drops of cach of two wells Druw' = each solulion and indicalor which forms pink color with OH much ofthe precipilales- possiblc into Berl Fncu Put the bulb of one pipet into a hot bath andthc other Into

Lab station Le €htelier* Principle: To the well on the right 4dd 20 drops of ! M sodium EDTA cl M Record any changs Precipaie nos Won t oxo] Given = EDTA with magnesium jccount for ~uur observation [cfms Lc Chitclicr $ Principle M MgClz 10 drops of 0.5 M NOH; nd drop of phenolphthalein Add 20 drops of cach of two wells Druw' = each solulion and indicalor which forms pink color with OH much ofthe precipilales- possiblc into Berl Fncu Put the bulb of one pipet into a hot bath andthc other Into cold bath Alicr - few sconds Fccord the colors of thc solutions How did the color changc? In which dircction docs the reaction shifi in response nol Tioyt6r Pm Kh incicisne temperature? Tre cold ret dok pr. fre What docs this tcll youabout whethet the rcuction endothermic Or exothermie Explain this in terms of Le Chiteller > Principle: Compkxes of Cobalt Equilibrium In this part you will study the reaction CoCly? - (4q) (blue] 6H20 (0) = Co(HzOl2+(aq) [pink] 4CI- (a4) The colors ofthe complexes make this reaction esy follow: dropa ofa 0.1 Makoholic solution of CoClz into cach of two wells This solutiog 24 prepared by disssolving CoClz 6Hz0 in cthanol varicty of complex ions involving Co?+, chloride ion, and weter are Prceeng; but CoCly? - gives most of the color: drop by drop drops) until you sce # color change; Record the color change: Add water dock 10 Voht PM Ner fiom blve for the color = change in terms of Le Chitelicr s Principle Account



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In June 2002, the Department of Health and Children in Ireland began a program to distribute tablets of potassium iodate to households as part of Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents. Potassium iodate provides iodine, which when taken during a nuclear emergency, works by "topping off " the thyroid gland to prevent the uptake of radioactive iodine that might be released into the environment by a nuclear accident. To test the potency of the tablets, a chemist dissolved one in $100.0 \mathrm{~mL}$ of water, made the solution acidic, and then added excess potassium iodide, which caused the following reaction to occur. $$ \mathrm{IO}_{3}^{-}+8 \mathrm{I}^{-}+6 \mathrm{H}^{+} \longrightarrow 3 \mathrm{I}_{3}^{-}+3 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} $$ The resulting solution containing $\mathrm{I}_{3}^{-}$ was titrated with $0.0500 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{~S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}$ solution, using starch indicator to detect the end point. (In the presence of iodine, starch turns dark blue. When the $\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}{ }^{2-}$ has consumed all of the iodine, the solution becomes colorless.) The titration required $22.61 \mathrm{~mL}$ of the thiosulfate solution to reach the end point. The reaction during the titration was $$ \mathrm{I}_{3}^{-}+2 \mathrm{~S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}^{2-} \longrightarrow 3 \mathrm{I}^{-}+\mathrm{S}_{4} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-} $$ How many milligrams of $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ were in the tablet?

So in this question we have to equations going on. So first we start with the potassium biotech solution because all of a certain mass of potassium Io date provides the rd high on In water to make 125 ml of solution. Then the following reaction takes place an acid so we end up getting the I. Three negative ions from this. Then the resulting solution is diluted to exactly 250 ml flash. So from this information we can find the polarity of the three negative solution used in the operation. So the total volume it was diluted to was 250. So we know the mass of the potassium i. o. d. That was serious. We can use the molar mass To convert two moles of testing. Then in one mole of potassium Ohio date we have one wall of bio data From the chemical reaction. We see that one mole of today I on give us three moles of So we can use the mole ratio to convert two moles of hydro negative, then divide by the total volume it was diluted to in leaders. So if we calculate this, our final answer has three reasons configures. And we end up getting the polarity of that solution. Now for the next part we want to find how many grams of ammonia feel sulfate in the were present in the fertilizer sample. So We're told the total mass of the fertilizer which is .2180 g. Then we are told the titillation required a certain volume of the I. Three negative solution. So now we can find the mass of the monium philosophic doesn't know the volume and more clarity of. So we're going to be looking at the second reaction here. So we're taking the polarity that we just calculated a multiplied by the volume of a solution that was yours in leaders. And then we are going to convert from moles of the I. Three negative moles of sodium, two moles of the S 203 negative ions. So we can see That from the balanced chemical reaction. one mole of either negative reaction to the deal Salt Lake. Yeah, so we're going to use that mole ratio to revert from bolton two moles of what we're looking for. So now that we have the molds of feel sulfate. We know that in one mole of the ammonium, feel self faith. We have one more of the steel self the island. You can see how There is no subject on that. So it's 1-1 ratio. So then we would need to convert the moles of the ammonium sulfate too massive yourself Using the molar mass. So during this conversion we end up with the mass of ammonia deal salty for the last part. We want to know what percentage by mass of fertilizer is the ammonium salt. So we have the amount of money feel sulfate. That was calculated from B. Divide that by the total mass of fertilizers and multiply that by one mhm. And then you're able to get the percent by mass of this fertilizer. That is the ammonia in the assault.

When this question. Yeah we're going to find the polarity of the carrier solution used in this situation. So we're given the massive potassium IO date that was originally added and dissolved to walk into the water and then this solution was acidified in order to form I three negative ion. And the total volume that this was diluted to 1.250 leaders. So we're going to start with the mass of the potassium I. O. Data use the molar mass of testing wild age or two most testing then use the low ratio from that's kind of reaction. You convert from the moles of sodium ion two moles of I. Three and also the potassium IO day contains one mole of I. O. D. I. On. So therefore we can also include that in our calculation. So now that we could convert the I. O. Day I on too high three negative ion. We just divide that by the total volume of solution and leaders and they get more clarity. Then we want to know what the mass of the ammonium sulphate in the fertilizer sample is. So we're told the volume of the I. Three negative solution that is required to fully titrate the ammonium sulphate in the fertilizer. So we're going to take the polarity that we calculated and step A and then we're multiplying by the volume of that solution that we used to titrate the ammonia theo sulfate from the balanced chemical reaction. We see that one mole of I three negative reacts with two moles. The assault there I So we can use that mole ratio to convert two moles of yourself They are. Then we can see from the formula for ammonium sulfate and ammonium philosophic, One mole of theosophy ion, so the mole ratio is 1 to 1. And we're able to convert from bowls of theus sulfite ion, two moles of ammonia philosophic. Then use the molar mass, pneumonia. Feel selfish, very mass of philosophic. Then we want to know what percentage of the fertilizer sample is the emollient feel salty. Take the mass that we calculated from being divided by the mass of the total sample. They multiply this by 100 in order to find the percentage of this sample that is.

Here for the solution in this. The reverse off the following equation is this. That is C B C 02 sorry at B C O to pull a row at B plus or two head out of the S plus 70 close would her at BCU at people asi is Delta equal a particular goal. Now here we subtract equation to which is this situation one which is this now, By subjecting it, we get Delta's equal to 10 clothes on and they were the final equation that it has B 02 plus CEO GHB CEO plus or two in her there. Turgeon minus stand. Carrie. Now for the next to calculate the equilibrium constant here, we know that Delta t know tickle toe minus rt. Okay. Hair and cake all to magazine out upon rt. By putting the value in the equation by simplifying it here, we guard that I am cake will to 40.36 and here to find this here. We got the cake order into the power. 40 points. 36 Now here we get the final value off K is 3.38 or 10. I was to the power 17. And and that looks a round off value ease. 3.1 to 10. 3 powers and 17. And this is the our answer. This was the solution. Her was reversed off equations and calculated the value of G not. And we're here by subjecting. Mhm both equation two from equation. Where we go developed C note and her were the combined equation and the value of see it her to calculate the equilibrium Constand ID, which is k equilibrium constant. Here we where the equation formula toe find. And here we find the value of okay. And this is the work. Commit well, thank you.

And this question were given the absorption spectrum of this iron complex containing, uh, five water Leon's and one sign eight begins. First, we want to know the color of the solution of this complex. And for that, we need to look the spectrum and notice that the maximum absorption takes place right here and what seems to be the green region of the electromagnetic. So remember that this is an absorption spectrum. So we're absorbing green light. What light are we transmitting? To figure that out, we need to take a look at our color wheel. So what we're seeing, it's green light. That means that the complimentary color, which is the light that is forgive me. You got that backwards. We're absorbing Greenlee, which means that the color that we're seeing is the complimentary sculler, and that is red. So the solution of the same not a complex is red. Next in party, we were asked to calculate that crystal field splitting energy and killer Jules for that and the absorption spectrum again, and notice that this maximum absorption takes place around 400 and 80 nanometers. We're gonna use that information to calculate the crystal fields. You mean the equation felt is equal to planks, constant tennis, the speed of light provided by the well. So remember that points constant is 6.6262 cents. The native 34 seconds the speed of light iss three time stand to the A meters per second. And then we were that we said that the wavelength was 480 nanometers. But the units that we need here are meters. So instead of nano meters, I'm the use tense, the negative nine because one centimeter iss um equal to tend to the nine meters. So notice that changing units that happens down there. Quick unit check meters will go. Rain go away will be left with units with Jules just minutes of energy and this is equal to four point 14 times sent to negative 19 jewels. Now that may seem like a really small number, and that's because it iss This is a very small amount of energy needed for, um, the DVD transition of a single ion. So for one eye on, this is the crystal feels pretty energy. But we were asked for the energy and kill Jules Kroll. So bring me could need to convert this energy. So one high on using first up about his number 6.2 times sent to 23rd because there's that many I aunts, if one more of violence. And then I need units of killer drove kilometers. 1000 one killer jewel contains 1000 jewels. Check your units one more time. We've got Jules. Jules Irons and I on some units were left with it's killer jewels to bite it most. And that value is equal to 249. Killer Jules for everyone. Well, next we're told in part and part. See, we're told that the ex aqua aren't complex is a pale violet solution we want to compare. It's Krystle. Feel splitting energy to that of the the whole side of the scientific complex. To do that. Let's go back and look at her color wheel from part. Okay, which looks like this recall that the scientific complex was read in that men that the green light was absorbed. We saw that in the absorption spectrum. Um, and now we're being told that the Aqua complex has this pale violet solution. So this is the access Aqua complex. This complex is pure violet. Then that means that the light absorbed by this complex is yellow. Okay, so these two go together, Okay, but we're being asked about the crystal field splitting energy. Um, remember that the absorption the energy that's absorbed is equal to the crystal field spinning energy. That's the energy of light that is absorbed by the electron to do that DVD transition. So we need to compare the energies of the green and yellow light. And you should know that red light as the lowest centre Jerry Violet light has the highest energy so moved clockwise around this color wheel, we're moving two higher energy. That means that green light has greater energy than yellow light. No, that's the case. That's the case. The sigh in eight complex is gonna have greater gruesome if Leo splitting energy, then the all water complex. So to answer your original question the crystal field splitting energy of the hex of awkward, complex ISS smaller then that of the Penta aqua. Thanks. Next we're asked, given the information we found C. We need to compare the field strength of the two litigants, the water leg in and sign a legal for that we need our spectra chemical Siri's where it would be helpful to have our spectra chemical Siri's, which borders Liggins according to their ability to split your pills. So we see that large crystal field splitting corresponds with strong fuel elegance while small crystal field splitting response to week feelings. So the legion. So we're comparing our water and signing, and what we saw in parts BNC above is that the more water you have, the more water you have. So here we go. The more water you have, the lower the energy of the absorption. I'll say it again. More water. You have six water legions. The lower the energy of the absorption. Put another way, put another way, replacing a water with a thigh sion eight elegant increases the absorption so and that seems to suggest with a sigh in eight has the greater crystal fields putting energy compared toe water. So let's go back and see that again. So it seems that replacing water with who signed it results in greater Krista feels greater absorption. Sze greater energy absorption and the greater energy absorption corresponds to greater splitting of the Dior. Let's look at it. Sure that if it takes more energies to cause an electron, two jumps, lower energy to higher energy, then that means that the crystal fields for any energy has increased. So it seems that sign eight is the stronger fuel. Ligon has the stronger crystal field strength or the greater. And finally we're told that this other complex, this exa seven auto complex, is red in color and we're us, too. Compare its crystal field, spreading energy to that of the house. I know too complex for that. Again, it will bring back our color wheel. We know from earlier that this. Thus, any complex is also read, so both of these appear the same color. That means they must absorb with same or similar wavelengths of light. So if they have the same color, they have similar absorption. And if they have similar absorption, they must have similar crystal fields playing energies


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