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(QOOS) The genes in the genome of an adult organism are expressed or silenced depending on whether gene needed In that cell type and envronment are mostly silenced ...

Question

(QOOS) The genes in the genome of an adult organism are expressed or silenced depending on whether gene needed In that cell type and envronment are mostly silenced after embryonic development complete_ must all be expressed in all cells of the organism for survival are vastly different in composition depending on the cell type.

(QOOS) The genes in the genome of an adult organism are expressed or silenced depending on whether gene needed In that cell type and envronment are mostly silenced after embryonic development complete_ must all be expressed in all cells of the organism for survival are vastly different in composition depending on the cell type.



Answers

Null alleles (mutant genes) produce no protein product. This is a genetic change. However, epigenetically silenced genes also produce no protein product. How does one determine experimentally whether a gene has been silenced by mutation or has been silenced epigenetically?

So what features of transplantable armaments does Aren't our pathway used to make sure that is targeting uh, like foreign Dan Air basically snacks own genes and so turns close. But all mental law times have inverted repeats, and then these number two repeats can cause DS. Arnie. This'll do us our name. Kim Korea s I armies. This then silences transpose A's Who's this can also happen to endogenous genes genes that are the host's own genes. But inverted repeats aren't could be as common as they are transposed on.

So this is problems seven. And this question has two parts. So I'm going to answer the first part of the question first and then answered the second part of the question. The first part of the question, it says, first of all that adult cells that are specialist don't have the ability to turn together any other type of cell that genes are inactivated. And they're asking how that helps to sell save energy. Well, that's basically the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells you want to sell a specialized, it only has certain equipment that carries out needed functions for necessary functions. Yeah, this is important because why would you continue to have the option and have a bunch of equipment that you don't need? Taking up space and requiring energy every time you eat? Every time energy is converted, it would be needed to fuel specific cellular equipment that you don't need. You don't need the same type of equipment for a constantly dividing cell, like a hair cell, for my ketosis that's constantly undergoing mitosis. You don't have the same kind of equipment there as you do for a muscle. So that isn't undergoing my toast this as quickly or even more importantly, a um so that's from your neural tissue. One of your neurons that doesn't go through my toes is nearly at all. So why would it need the equipment as many checkpoints or as much equipment from to undergo mitosis if it's not doing it as frequently. So by only having what it needs, the cell saves energy because it's not using energy to upkeep specific cellular equipment that it doesn't need. So basically it saves energy just like you save space in a small, small room by not by getting rid of the stuff it doesn't need. In part two asks why you need to have those cells being specialized or why you need to have those genes reactivated in order to make a animal clone. And the answer is imagine development, right? Imagine baby to adult. A clone has exactly the same genetic material as the thing that is that it was cloned from. However, it doesn't go straight to being an adult. It has to go from a young baby to an adult or whatever type of creature it is fond to a deer or whatever. Right? In that process it needs to have a new specialized cells or embryonic cells differentiate into specialized cells. It can't just have specialized cells immediately because that's not the way development works. So we need those genes to be reactivated so that it can properly develop from an embryo to an adult even if it is being closed. I hope that that makes sense.

This question deals with how genes are silenced C elegance. The roundworm is one of the model organisms in biology and is used very regularly to explain how cells differentiate and one of the key ways that cells differentiate is by controlling gene expression. Gene expression is controlled at multiple steps. Now if we look here, I've written up the central dogma of biology which is DNA is transcribed to RNA and RNA is translated to protein. Now when it becomes a protein and it has reached its final function that is when a gene is fully expressed. So that gives the cell plenty of opportunity to silence that gene before it is fully expressed at the DNA level. It does it with the availability of the DNA. This is done in chroma tin. Remember chromosomes are the superstructure that controls D. N. A organization and it has two confirmations. One is hetero chroma tin and one is you chroma tim you chromatic comes from the greek root, you meaning good. And that is where the chromatic is actually loose enough that it can be transcribed into MRNA. If a cell does not want a specific gene to be translated, it takes on the form of hetero chrome button. Hetero chroma tin is very tightly wound around his stones and other proteins and is unavailable for transcription. Therefore this gene would be silenced. That's one of the ways that it is science. The next way that it factors that it is able to silence it is with the use of transcription factors, transcription factors open up DNA and enabled transcription to occur. The cell can then tell the transcription factors that they are not wanted in a particular area, particularly RNA polymerase is the workhorse here. And if it is not present, no transcription occurs and the gene is silenced. R N. A. Is just the storage form. In order for it to become useful, it needs to be converted to M. R N. A. In order for that to happen. Three things have to occur. First is the metal capping at the five prime end of the MRNA. Second is the splicing, the removal of the introns and then the subsequent combining of the exxons and last is the addition of a poly a tail. We call this process processing. Now. If the cell does not want the this gene to be expressed, it will prevent processing of MRNA. And that therefore will silence this gene. There's another step that can occur at MRNA and deal with the silencing that is export M. R. N. A. In order to export from this uh from the nucleus and go to the ribosome. To be translated into proteins requires export factors. These are called exports. If these export mints are unable to recognize particular sites or simply do not have their co factors present, they're unable to export the MRNA through the nuclear pore complex and out into the region where the ribosomes are. That would also silence this gene. Uh there's also another step here with RNA degradation. I'm putting it under the translation uh step. Even though it deals with RNA. Because RNA degradation occurs in the cytoplasm, the cytoplasm is not a very good environment for M. R. N. A. It's very, very harsh. And so if RNA ephemera is exported and it's waiting in queue to be translated into a protein at the ribbon zone, then if it waits too long, the chemicals forces in the side of plaza will cause it to break apart and degrade, thereby silencing that gene. The last step is the protein. Now, when an amino acid chain is synthesized following translation, that is not the complete end of a protein. Oftentimes proteins have to go through probst translational modification in order to become active. Uh this means that other proteins have to come in and modify certain aspects of that sequence in order for it to take its final shape. This is the last chance a cell has to silence a gene. If it does not want that gene to be expressed, it prevents the post translational modification from occurring, thereby silencing the gene.

This question asked. How can hard Ai jean sounds ing be used to determine the function of jeans? So, as we know or in a, I is going to be a gene silencing technique that is going to be used to study the fact of loss of function? See notes of known G So in or in a I, the known sequence of the gene is going to be clone in a few copies, meaning that it will be cloned in the sense an anti sense or template and coding strand directions with a space in between. And this generates a stem loop structure in vivo, which will produce several S. I are in a that going bind to the original transcript and degraded or inhibit the translation of that transcript. So these two copies we'll go on to produce S. I are in a that will find to the original transcript and either grade for him it It's translation, so either it will destroy that transcript or prevent it from being translated. And it's important to note that the genomic locus of the gene and the transcription activity are going to be maintained, but they cannot produce proteins out of the transcript, you'll get degraded so this will produce a loss of function FINA type for the given gene, as we have mentioned previously.


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