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Fonu aLetde BtuctureToll Eieclonig Mumber Molecular Polar; number Gromety Onena Geomaty nonpolat: paire or ion? ealenPFECIFCIF BClCHCEBR...

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Fonu aLetde BtuctureToll Eieclonig Mumber Molecular Polar; number Gromety Onena Geomaty nonpolat: paire or ion? ealenPFECIFCIF BClCHCEBR

Fonu a Letde Btucture Toll Eieclonig Mumber Molecular Polar; number Gromety Onena Geomaty nonpolat: paire or ion? ealen PFE CIF CIF BCl CHCE BR



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Consider these molecules: $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}, \mathrm{NH}_{3}, \mathrm{CO}_{2}, \mathrm{CIF}, \mathrm{CCl}_{4}$ (a) In which compound are the bonds most polar? (b) Which compounds in the list are not polar? (c) Which atom in CIF has a partial negative charge?

Going to look at polarity and determining whether molecules are polar for non polar based on whether they have an overall Die Polana. So vastly of G. H four. So this is non polar and very symmetrical. Next we have I to again that's non parlor because it's the same elements, there's no difference in electra negativity. Next we have CF three cl which is polar and the major inter molecular forces, a diaper or diaper. All interactions. Next we have PCL three. This is polar because of the giant tree. Next you have BCL three. So where we have a central boron and then what we have is three substitutes around it. Ah which is a polar molecule. Thanks for your s. c. l. two. Again, this is polar because we have a bank confirmation. So here we've identified our polar molecules and are non polar molecules.

Okay, so this problem asked um which molecule contained polar bonds. So in order to answer this question, we first need to know what is the requirement for the formation of the polar bonds. First for the molecule, it must contain two kinds of atoms Or two kinds of elements. Because only in that way there will be a difference of charges between one elements and another elements which can form uh paul of actor which is a deep hole. That's uh the first one actually is necessary to form a bond which has a diaper moment. And another requirement is about the structured. It was a molecule. Yeah, based on structure, you will know whether those pollard bonds can result in a net collar moment or like electric diaper moment inside structure. So now we can look at the molecules self, the first one is old um You see all of them has only oxygen atoms inside the molecule. It only has one element. So there shouldn't be any difference of charge on different atoms because they are the same. So definitely 03. All of them is not a polar molecule. And it does not have polar bonds, does not have Paula bottles. And let's look at B and B is as a software and same as ozone, There is only one element which means there will be no charge difference between the atoms. So definitely there will be no polar bonds. And now what you see Says an L three nitrogen oxide and you can see nitrogen oxide is definitely a has a polar bonds because nitrogen and oxygen different elements, they have different electron activity. So when they form a bond there will be different charge distributed on two atoms. So it forms a diaper moment. So it definitely it forms a diaper bonds. However, whether M. 03 is a polymer molecule, you have to actually to answer that you have to actually draw structure. So what is structure like for another three? So actually looks like that? So we know that we can say for for example, for for first we need to know there are actually around five electrons in nitrogen and find our layer electrons. So, but it forms three actually three auction bombs. So how does that look? So it probably forms a bond to another one, And I know

In this problem, you're given five compounds a water. Be ammonia. See carbon dioxide, Do you quarry mono fluoride and e carbon touch record Part One of the problem asks you Which compound has the most polar bonds? Bond polarity is determined by the difference in electro negativity between the atoms in the bond. So let's calculate this Delta X or each of the molecules. Let's start with water in water. We have O. H bonds. Oxygen has an electro negativity of 3.5 and hydrogen have an electro negativity of 2.2. This gives us a difference of 1.3. In this case, hydrogen is going to be the more positively charged, and oxygen is going to be the more negatively charged because the oxygen is more electronic. Now let's look at NH three. So we have N H bonds in this molecule, Nitrogen has an electro negativity of 3.0, and hydrogen has elected negativity of 2.2. So our difference here is 0.8, and in this pond, once again, nitrogen is more Electra negative. So it's going to be the negatively charged at and see you have CO two. But we have carbon oxygen bombs. Oxygen has electro negativity of 3.5, and carbon hasn't electro negativity of 2.5. So our difference between the two is one point. Oh, in this case, oxygen is the more Electra negative, Adam. So it's going to have a partial negative charge here. Now let's move on to steel up. So here we have the bond between chlorine and flooring. Our difference in electro negativity. The origin activity of flooring is 4.0, and the elector negativity of Corning is 3.2. So our difference is 0.8. So we're gonna have a dicho moment that looks like this because flooring is more like to negative Adam. Now it's like a e. We have carbon tetrachloride. So we have carbon chlorine bonds here for a difference in electro negativity. Corrine has Electra negativity of 3.2, and carbon has an electro negativity of 2.5. So our difference is 0.7 and we have a diaper moment that looks like this. So out of all the compounds listed, the one with the most polar bonds is going to have the greatest delta X value and our greatest value is 1.3. Therefore, water is the compound with the most polar bonds, the O. H. Bond. Now let's move on to part two of the problem. Part two asks which of the compounds are non polar. In order to determine whether compound is polar or non polar. We have to look at the structure so we can start by drawing Lewis structures of each of the molecules. Let's begin with H 20 You start with our Lewis structures. Let's add up the number of Valence electrons. Hydrogen has one. We have to hundreds and one oxygen, which has six fails like Trump's. So we have eight in total. Hydrogen can only be a terminal Adam, so oxygen will be our central Adam and will connect the two hydrogen on either side. And to fulfill the optical, we can add lone pairs around the oxygen to create the structure with the correct number of valence electrons. So, as you can see, oxygen has four electron groups coming off of it. Two lone pairs onto single bonds, so it will form a tetra he'd RL structure that looks something like this. As you can see, this molecule if Ace magical and based on the die pull moment we observed in the O. H Bond, the overall molecule will have a disciple millet like this with the positive end where the hydrogen czar and the negative and closer to the oxygen and the loan periods. So this is a polar molecule for next molecule, we have an H three. Nitrogen has five valence electrons and hydrogen has one. We have three hydrogen, which gives us a total of eight valence electrons. Nitrogen will be our central Adam. We can add the hydrogen, surround it with single bonds and finally add a long pair to fulfill the architectural with the nitrogen. The central Adam in this molecule also has four left Congress coming off of it. So once again, we're going to have a touch Wahid RL electron geometry. So our molecule will look something like that. So NH three is also a symmetrical and based on her diaper moment of the N H bond, the molecule will have a positive end near the hydrogen that a negative end on the side of the long pair. So once again, we have a polar molecule. Now let's take a look and our third compound co two Carbon has four valence electrons and oxygen has six. We have to oxygen's giving us a total of 16 carbon is the lefts electro negative Adam. So that will be our central item, and we can add the oxygen's on either side. If we add electrons in lone pairs to fulfill the octet rule, we'll see that we have 20 veils electrons in this structure, so we need to add some double bonds in order to get rid of some of those extra electrons. You can add a double bond on either side of the carbon to give us a little structure. It looks something like that. So this is the correct Louis structure, with a total of 16 dale electrons. So, as you can see carbon on, Lee has to electron drips coming off of it, which means it's going to be it when you're molecule. Even though the CEO bombs are polar and have dicho moments, it looked like this. The molecule is symmetrical, so these diaper moments will cancel out so the entire molecule will be non polar. Now let's look at our fourth molecule CEO uh, both Corinne and flooring have £7 electrons, so this molecule will have a total of 14. Will connect the two Adams with a single bond, and we can add lone pairs around them to create Lewis structure with the correct number of Valence electrons. As we saw in Part one, the CEO of Bond is a polar bond. The diable moment. It looks like this, meaning the overall molecule will also be a polar molecule. No, finally, let's take a look at our last molecule, carbon tetrachloride. Carbon has four valence electrons and chlorine have seven, and we have four Corinne's, which gives us a total of 32 bounds electrons. Carbon is the least Electra negative, Adam. So that will be our central Adam and I could put the chorines around it. Now all we have to do is add some lone pairs, and the active rule is now satisfied, and we have the correct number of 32 valence electrons. So, as you can see, Carbon has four electrons groups coming off of it, the four single bombs. So it's going to make a touch of federal structure, so it's going to look something like this, just like with co two. The CCL bonds are polar bonds, but as you can see, this molecule is completely symmetrical. Therefore, all of the diaper moments of the bonds will cancel out, and we have here a non polar molecule. So therefore we have to non polar molecules. The CO two on the CCL four. Finally, part three of this problem asks which Adam in CLF. It's more negatively charged. So let's take a look at party again as we determine before in the Korean flooring bond flooring as the more Electra negative of the two atoms. So we have a diaper moment that looks like this. The more electro negative element is going to carry more of the negative charge, therefore, are more negative. Adam in this molecule is Florida.

Hello Today we'll be talking about chapter 14 Question 122 which asks us to determine which of the following molecules are polar. And so the approach that we're going to use is to look at the molecular structures that I've drawn out here and think about, um, the differences in electron distribution around the central Adam. So in the case of this up here which we call silent in S I H. Ford, we have hydrogen inscribing the four points of a tetrahedron, three of hydrogen going to the left, going up which I can draw a little bit further up, as well as coming out of the screen towards you here with the bold of line and going away into the screen. And so what we have is a symmetrical series of four Adams around the central app, and thus they're all going to have pull in opposite directions and the net die pole. We draw the dye poles along all of these which are very weak, die polls. Anyway, the net die poll is zero. So this is a non polar molecule. However, when we look att hydrogen sulfide, we now have a different situation. We have to sulfur. We have a sulfur Adam that is more Electra negative than the two oxygen atoms, and they both pulled towards it. It pulls electron density towards itself, and there is no there are no other atoms on the other side of the molecule here or here. Thus, this molecule does have a permanent dye pole that adds these two together to get this die pole, and the result is that this is a polar molecule. It's for that and read polar because it is a permanent dye pole. Similarly, ah, the compound in the bottom left and No. Two than the nature radical also has a di Pole, where we have the oxygen Adam pulling this way from the nitrogen and the other oxygen atom pulling this way. And once again, the result is a permanent Dye poll here that is a summation of the other two, so I'll draw the permanent dye poles in green. So this is our other permanent dye pole. And so once again, this molecule is polar because it has a permanent dye pole and finally trike Loro Ammonia or Argus N. C. L three. Once again, chlorine is going to be withdrawing electron density from the nitrogen in these three directions. So coming out of Thea board towards us in the plane of the screen and going into the screen, and because these air all slightly tilted down from being in the same plane, we have a net die pole that's very weakly in this direction right here. And so once again because we don't cancel out all of the dye pole effects. This is also a polar molecule and indeed, any molecule where there is a net permanent dye pole that molecule bi polar. And if you have a symmetrical ah group of Adam's around the central Adam symmetrical elements around the central Adam, then you're non polar because all of your di polls will cancel. Hopefully this


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