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Write down the chemical structure of polymer (polyester) formed from monomer HO(CHzJoCOOH:Neglecting the contribution of end groups to polymer molar mass, cal...

Question

Write down the chemical structure of polymer (polyester) formed from monomer HO(CHzJoCOOH:Neglecting the contribution of end groups to polymer molar mass, calculate the percentage conversion of functional groups (extent of reaction) required to obtain a polyester with a number- average molar mass of 50,000 g mol from the monomer HO(CHz)oCOOH Atomic mass: Carbon (12) _ H(1) _ Oxygen (16)

Write down the chemical structure of polymer (polyester) formed from monomer HO(CHzJoCOOH: Neglecting the contribution of end groups to polymer molar mass, calculate the percentage conversion of functional groups (extent of reaction) required to obtain a polyester with a number- average molar mass of 50,000 g mol from the monomer HO(CHz)oCOOH Atomic mass: Carbon (12) _ H(1) _ Oxygen (16)



Answers

Calculate the percent composition by mass of the following compounds that are important starting materials for synthetic polymers:
a. $\mathrm{C}_{3} \mathrm{H}_{4} \mathrm{O}_{2}$ (acrylic acid, from which acrylic plastics are made)
b. $\mathrm{C}_{4} \mathrm{H}_{6} \mathrm{O}_{2}$ (methyl acrylate, from which Plexiglas is made)
c. $\mathrm{C}_{3} \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{N}$ (acrylonitrile, from which Orlon is made)

So we had to Cody the percentage composition by mass of the foreign compound. So that's self. With the 1st 1 we have, ah critic assets See forage ch four or to first of all, we have to find them will total more than mass. So we have Ah, the carbon So v f ah free God feeds on 12 and therefore highchairs hydrogen. And there we have ah, two oxygen. So we have three times. Well, plus four plus 16 times. Two Ah, the total with the matter with 70 Kuemper mo. All right, so we assume we have one mo off substance or we're going to found a percentage composition. So four carbons the Pacific and position will be ecosystem Massive fall carbons. So we will be 36 because we have free hopping divide by the total more the mass. So first, if they were by 72 and then we have super five and is a corresponding Teoh pretty percent. Okay, So for high treason, we are going to have ah ah, four hydrogen and that we have total 74. Ah, And as soon, um actually we are I missed 12%. So after you will climb by 12% you should be able to file. That is a 50% for Okay, so we're less confusing. All right, so, um, assume for ah, hydrogen, we go back to hydrogen. So we have for be over for indigent, and they do up with the overall mass, and then we should be able to find those were around 5.5% and then last. But long as we have oxygen so hostage in ah, degree half at sea off them. So we have are free to divide by 72 Taiwan and your percent, and then we will have Ah, but there are four year, 4.4%. 44 44% for hostages. Okay, let me rewrite that. Okay, so this would be the percentage composition off carbon has your also Jim Inaccurate acid. Okay, so we move on to you r c four inches. So, too, which we corresponded only for Akron eight. If our equity Toby argues, I wack call over here. So that's final. The total Muna mass. So again, we're going to have for four ah cabins, six hydrogen and also to oxygen, and we should be able to find density is x 6 86 grams per mole. So the cabins Ah, the Santa True vehicles to ah for carbons. Not the road by the Teutul. Just a toe. Hold Asian We show over here Reacher changing number. A comment that we should be able to find it for free. Around 50 feet for the 5.8% hydrogen will be equals. Teoh referee around 6.98%. And then that's been all these oxygen we believe off there. Ah, Around, um 37.22 for cental set for the 7.2 2%. Okay, so and then we move on the last one we would have Ah! Ah! A quinoa Night try. So again, we're going. Teoh, look for the total With a mass, we have free competently hydrogen and every half one on nitrogen. So their total with the masses. Afridi, 3.1 enquire from gold. Okay, so we are going to do the same. The same coagulation. So we have free carpet. Do you want by the old form with a mess by one out and then the pipe by 100%. And that We should be able to find a 67 point now to say and they move on to ah hydrogen. So we have free hydrogen. So we're three divided by the total would amass time 20%. And I wish you have what? He around 5.6? Who says a nice but no this for on nine Children. Ah, we will have around 26 point 5% for nitrogen and those of the vicinity composition off the

Okay, so I want to give the monomer prepared each, the following polymers and um this this is the result of an addition harmonization reaction developing. Are keen at a radical. So the first thing we just have 123456789 ch juice. So you know it started from and are keen on each of the carbons. Don't have any functional groups use of hydrogen. So we're going to start from the simplest Joaquin react this with a radical attacking any of these carbons. So this is what the this is the monomer of the polymer, checking this carbon. This carbon gets a radical we're going to get So just draw in the ether first Addition of two carbons, Carbon 1 & two. Uh huh. Carbon to is the radical reacting this with another ethylene. So we get two carbons per reaction. We have nine and settled. So if we do this Around five times will get 10. So if we repeated this five times we'll get the products. Next one is a six Carbon chain. And we have metals falling every other carbon. So we can start with our two carbon a keen and instead of hydrogen on the one carbon will add a methyl group. If we would react this with the radical, it's always going to attack the left handed carbon. There's this one, it's just hard to answer To draw in the Ether. one We had two carbons carbon one and 2 carbon to is the metal. And the article acting this with another Kerpen attacking the center. Carbon again, carving. It's a radical Same with this one. So and this is the structure we're going to get. So each This is carbon 1 2 three and four 34 two Carbons 2 and four had metal groups. You just have origins and the radical and if we repeated this a few more times we would get the products. But this is this unit. We started with this Peruvian writer and this is the unit for a ethylene for afternoon. Okay, for C. We have the structure mm hmm 2 7 Carbon Sheen. And each carbon is separated by bed scenery. So we just added five carbons of this. We're gonna start with Joaquin. So you can draw that. And the one Arquin are the one carbon of the arcane is going to have a benzene ring. Yeah, I'm just gonna do this represents a benzene ring. A circle with a line through it also. But just P. A. Trophy. And although for the ring we have hot regions here and react with the radical. Yeah, exactly like standard carbon. This one, this is gonna be the repeating sub unit. Every other carbon is gonna have a fetal ring. Similar to the first couple of actions. So the structure is actually styrene. Which the benzene ring. We just draw it up a benzene ring attached to Joaquin. This is styrene. And yeah it's taking this carbon that's it to further their reaction. This will be a repeating sub unit. You're looking at the we have a method of chlorine. 123456 Some central chain out first and every other carbon has a method of chlorine. Okay so sorry with athlete again and richard to hodgins in this carbon this carbon is gonna have a chlorine and um ethel So in actuality the structure is 123. This is too cool or propane. We should take this, this is gonna be the monomer and then again attacking the carbon X. One is okay so this one looks kind of weird but it's really the same pattern we've been doing before with a keen and then the one carbon of the arcane has some are group to distinguish it. This case for giving a 12345678. Eat carbon chain. So control at first and then every other carbon has an ester functional group. Or the ester is actually wait, hold. It should be. So the key to in here on this carbon, it's auction is bound to ethel and same with this carbon. So, and I mean I would keep drawing but I ran in the room but you get the idea this is the polymer forgiven. Again, starting with are all keen. Excellent. You have this carbon unhindered, then this carpet has the Esther, the auction is attached to this ethnic group right here. What's the answer? This is gonna be the monomer. Just have a hydrogen here. So, if you want to get four minutes for these two, The first one is going to be just CH two second one we circled is so it's just it's just Peruvian go from off the road, right up, surge through this carbon is going to be ch the CH two dope on here. Mhm. Ever see it's going to be ph for fetal that's attached to ch that will balance. You never see each to That's your D. Structure is scenario here. So, from left to right, starting at the bottom of the metal chlorine there, the carbon still bound to besiege, sir, which again, is the structure Two core appropriate the last one, sorry, from the bottom with the Esther it's going to be stage three CH two, oxygen carbon. So be that we're looking at this carbon of the queen at CH. It will balance to the search to

Assess what structural features need to be present in order to make a home. A polymer, polyester and a homo polymer is one where all monomers are identical and a polyester is a component, or is a structure that forms from the reaction of a carb oxalic acid and an alcohol functional group to Foreman Esther Group. So to make a structurally uniform polyester, all you would need is a car back Selic acid and an alcohol functional group to reacts to form that poll. Yes, sir, for 11 be a co polymer. Polyamide is one that is made from two different types of monomers. And the example the book gave us was nylon, which forms from Dime Er's that have an Emmy in group at one end and a car box, Oh, group of the other. Now a dime er is the term for a building block that contains two monomers. And so if each of those dime er's has an M ing group at one end and a car box of group on the other, that means the individual monomer is goingto have tohave two or more Emmy in groups and two or more Carmack Selic acid groups And that's because each monomer has to have at least two functional groups in order for polarization to occur at all. If one monomer only had one group, then it wouldn't be able to form the timers necessary. It's who formed the structure of the polyamide and then for C. We need to find a structure that conform both in addition and a condensation polymer. So in addition, polymer is just one that has a double bond between a carbon. So no matter what our structure is going to need, a double carbon bond and condensation polymers form two different categories. The first is a polyester, and the second is a poly. Abide and so to make a polyester, as we've already discussed, you would need a alcohol and a carb oxalic acid group. And so make a poly am. I'd you would need Amin groups and carb oxalic acid groups. And so this There are two possibilities of structures. No matter what, we need this carbon carbon double bond. Otherwise, you can't form the addition polymer and you need and alcohol in a car box. Selic Acid Group If you're making an addition and condensation polyester or you need the Amin and carve oxalic acid groups. If you're making a condensation, Polly am, I'd

So 11 a is asking us what types of structures we need to form a homo Polymer Polyester? No. Ah, homo polymer refers to a polymer that has the same type of monomer. So we're looking for something that is structurally uniform Now a polyester results from the formation of the reaction between a car back psyllid Assad Group and an alcohol functional group to form and Buster. So the monomer for a polyester is goingto have tohave a carb oxalic acid functional group, as well as an alcohol functional group. In order to form the polyester, 11 B is asking us what we need to form a cold polymer. Polly M ID and the example the book gave us was nylon. Now a co polymer means that we're using to different types of monomers and a polyamide like nylon is the result of the formation of Dime er's that have an M ing group at one end, and our car box will group at the other. Now a dime er is a building block that has to monomers, innit? So if the dime er hasn't am ing group at one end and a car box will group of the other. That means one of those monomers needs toe have at least two Emmy in groups and the other needs to have at least two car box of groups. The reason being each of those monomers needs at least two functional groups in order to form the chain. You can think about it like a chain in the link asked to have an attachment point at either end. So each of these monomers needs at least two functional groups to create that co polymer polyamory ID. And lastly, we need to find the components that could make both in addition and a condensation polymer. So in addition, polymer is one that has a carbon carbon double bond. So regardless of whether we're making a condensation polymer, we have tohave that carbon carbon double bond. Now there are two different types of condensation polymers. One of them is a polyester, and the other is a poly M ID. Now, if we're going to form the polyester, then we need tohave an alcohol in a car box, Selic Acid Functional group. And if we want to form the Poly am, I'd we need the ami in group and the car boxes like acid. So to form both in addition and a condensation polymer, we're going to need that double bond. And we're going to need a carb oxalic acid in an alcohol to make the polyester. Or we need an M ing group and a carb oxalic acid to make the poly M ID.


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