Draw tne mechanism for each reacion shown below-EIOH...


Draw tne mechanism for each reacion shown below-EIOH

Draw tne mechanism for each reacion shown below- EIOH


Draw a stepwise mechanism for each reaction .

Hillary wanted every doing. Chapter 23 Problem 44. And this for masses to draw the stepwise mechanism for each of these reactions. So here we have halogen ation, a crane and B. We have some sort of acid catalyzed collagen ation, and we know that has a cat lives halogen ation. Well, it starts off with two parts. Number one is going to be the Kyoto organization from the uniform. And then once we have the uniform, were they use those pi elections to act in the nuclear file to react with the hell gin. So let's go ahead and start doing that. So we'll start with our certainly chilled here and were reacting with some sort of acid here. No. So if acetic acid and some key tone here, So what we do know is that to see the gas is gonna make the environment proton rich. So auction being having long productions and acting is the local files and pick up one of these protons to donate itself. So what you have is now predominated oxygen. Three bonds, on the contrary, based on pure acid, it's not. What happened is that you're acid. Catalyst wants we reformed, so it has to take off a proton off the Alpha position. So now this contra base being nuclear file Long pair electrons are gonna pick up this proton making bomb. You make a body break a ponce uniform the penal Hi, Bond. Making about you make a bomb you wanna break upon and balancing a break is this pie bond on the auction nucleus? Such that isn't a make auction have to bonds and neutralize itself. And now what we have is our penal Tanamor and reform our acid cattles. So at this point now and you know our diatonic row me on using the eternal as long per election source We're actually now with this auction. Those loan for elections were to come back down to form the Cardinal Bond making more makeup on your break upon. So this thiss alky boners in a break goes through this Alfa carbon, I'm gonna pick up a brawny nucleus you make upon your breaking bonds now that going bowling ball on their breaks And now you're forming again. The ah carbon auction when I was three bones again, You have a positive charge. Nine for me and you roaming around here and you have the grow mine and I own so throw my hand on an acidic conditions. Does not want to be an ironical once we pro Nate it so is going to pick up being like Philip is gonna pick up this acidic proton off this carbon oxygen to neutralize entire system. I'm not gonna yield your final product in a now It's a little different. So you still have your ideas or your college ins, but not here in basic conditions. So would you consider a and see it from the product here is that even has some sort of hollow form reaction You have essentially halogen nation and crying. But then because we have halogen that this Alfa position that those actors, good leaving groups so Russian kicked off this alcohol Hey light were so keep that off with our base that were reacting This these compounds in and we'll have halal form being formed so and how reforming reactions Alfa Carbon here the three protons of the album cover and successfully replaced with the Indians. And once that you have oxidative or base mediated cleavage occurring such, they're going to have this How awful being formed with your uncle Highlight and your negatively charged asked orbital gases or co obsolete on. So this occurs so syrupy. So, B, we have starting material. And now we're reacting this in basic conditions. So the bases in a rip off these lest Erik Lee hindered for carbons off of protons off the prick arguments and take off one to form now on immolates. So those two electrons on though that signal bond between carbon hydrogen are going to go into the carbon nucleus to form your emulate? No. So I have an eerily being formed here, and at this point, now you're emulates can react with two to form a new carbon college in bond they make about, you break a bond and then you have your first apology added at this point. But you still have plenty of acid and plenty of dying from a college and left. So what's gonna happen is that you have this whole process repeating two more time, so your base is going to rip off one of these protons going to make your carbon on in your carbon atoms and axes and nuclear file to pick up the halogen. You have a carbon on that's gonna pick up another idea. You have die Holiday nation, a crane and this entire process, you know, people more time such that you have three I tings being at it. So I just draw that products. So, you know, repeat the entire process again. Now get three islands being added. And now, at this point, now you have your base coming in and the audio cleave this intermediate two former California region. So, Gina, have is uncle coming in attacking this electoral Filic Carbonneau Carbon making a bomb you make about your break up monsters? Cardinal Bonds in a break, go up to the auction nucleus, But it's gonna come back down to reform the cardinal Bonds and I made a new bonds. You kick off the bond which you kick off is a very good leaving group being this Alka hell out here, they're reformed. It's a very good leaving group because of so much electron density being pulled towards election. Negative idea, madam. And what you have here is now in a form a Carmen ion three eyed Ian's Nazi carbon is not happy being negatively charged, rather being neutral. So it's in a rip off this acidic proton from acid, which is has a very low p k. So it's actually very happy to give away that proton to carbon and uniform the product and B, which is this car Boxley downtown and our siege three byproducts.

Everyone to their doom. Chapter eleven point fifty two in this question, assets into stepwise mechanism for each of these fallen reactions. So sort of a Well, in a way, we're starting off with something Al kind and we're getting some additional carbons and alcohol Europe using reagents one, two and three. So what is one where we have a carbon? I am here with the lithium Spectator Ion doesn't do anything and we know that Karan on Khun Depot, Nate Acidic protons off carbon. So we know that this al kind proton, as in so many produce examples, is an acidic proton. So we know that and Ionic Ethel group can pick up this proton deep, coordinating this carbon, making this carbon into a better nuclear fall. They're very reactive nuclear fall, I should say, actually So we're getting this intermediate, the two carbon on his option nickel on this carbon nuclear fall, making very reactive. And then what are we reacting with? Well, reacting with two to being cardinal group here and obviously we know that this carbon the central carbon here in this only carbon I should say, is very electoral filic and very electron poor because of the election pulling effect towards this oxygen nucleus, giving carbon a positive Delta positive charge, making it very, very electron, poor and susceptible to nuclear flick attack from our reactive nuclear fall making bond. When you make a bond, you break a bonds auction. Being election negative is happy to accept those two electrons from this pylon onto itself. It's not reform. This is where we gain that extra carbon. Now we have an all minus here. So now we're taking this certain material reacting with water. So just like the Parkside ring opening, so this is you can think of in the park, said ring opening. The last step is always additional water that neutralizes your own minus to an old age to your alcohol group. So auction being very election rich. Now, with this extra long period, electrons can pick up one of waters. Protons making bomb make a bond break a bond, and those two left ones are happy to go towards the auction nucleus because it's his electron negative nature. Oh, age Plus you're, oh, age from the water mines. You get your product now for scene crowding this regent with water and some sorts from acid. This is sulphuric acid. L a grating h eight. Simplify everything. We're getting this compound here, so let's do this in a different color. So if you can imagine we're mixing water with this compound. But this is in an equilibrium with acid, So essentially we have water and equilibrium with the city quarters, H three or mine or a steel class. Sorry, so we can say that he's a a chair exterior. Plus, you can say that and nuclear fall will pick up a proton from this proton rich solution. So as I can't find nuclear fall so you could force our national rich and they have long parallel trunks, the only thing I see that's a that's an original has longer electrons. Does this auction your glass? So we know that this auction is going to pick up a proton from either HBO Plosser h ey from H A. For one of these, because this, including that exists between them. So don't pick up a proton and he's going to probably itself. So it's going to step one. So I'll just straw step one forward here Now we have, after which two plus plus you're confident base, which is in the age tool. And now we can imagine that now this is going to be a secondary carbon if this falls off, so we know that always two h tool plus is not very favorable. This is appropriated water, water, electricity, new shal So it's just going to spontaneously fall off. So this gives you now a secondary carbo cat on which is stabilized highly stabilized. But we can do some residents structures with this molecule as well. So if you do residence structure moving over one of the pylons is Al Qaeda. We get a resident structure and president structures are double sided arrows. We get a resident structure that looks something like this. So you get this resident structure, we would have couple cut and on this terminal carbon position here. And I'm from a sternal covering position here to move forward and the reaction scheming all back to the starting material because you were trying to form this product, we can use our contract base being this water molecule that fell off before we know that this is neutral, but this should act as to act as a nuclear fall to the luxury enrich nature. Aiken neutralizes carbo cat and that was formed before. So now this satisfies ox. Her rule four bonds was carbon and now we form H tool plus again. But we wantto deponent this into an alcohol so we can use now a minus that's floating around in solution was never strong acids. They fully dissociate to H plus and a minus. So there's gonna be some a minus floating around. So the contra bass off sulfuric acid to pick up this proton make a bond break upon. Now, give us is alcohol here. So now we also reformed h ey so we can actually do something like and he don't, you know, Todd immunization. So remember, this is the uniform and is directly bounded to a carbon that has a double bond. So we're going to kill, you know, Todd immunizations. This will form a new double bond here, and then you make upon you break up onto this pie. Bon will break going through auction nucleus picking up this proton we make upon you break up onto these tool of trans will go back to auction nucleus to make sure everything stays neutral and all we did here is a hero in autumn ization, which we've done plenty in the past. Reform now our Aldo hide in our product with thiss our group over here.

Hello Today we're doing problem nine point sixty four and this public is too parts and then access to determine the stepwise mechanism for each of the following reaction. So the first reaction is on page one and we'LL begin with this. So as you see here, we start with some sort of cyclic either and we go into some sort of straight Shane. Ah, hydrocarbon on alcohol. Highlight. Diabolical. He lied. So obviously the first thing that we see here is that we're starting to equivalents off h I. So we know right away h will associate h plus and I minus. When we look at our starting material, we see that we have oxygen which can act as a good nuclear fall. So right away, we know the auction will pick up one of those protons the first equivalent Proton to prone in itself. Now we have auction with three bonds giving it a formal positive charge. Remember, option is not like positive charge. It likes being neutral or negative. So one of these Sigma bonds adjacent to auction will break forming a carb Okada Intermediate and neutralizing this alcohol. However, which one is going to break well the one that forms the most stable carb Okada. So if we see if you break the rights Sigmund Bond, Reforma, Tertiary Kolkata. If we're to break this the left signal bond, we form a primate Carbon cotton. Remember, Primary Carver Captains do not form. They're not stable. So we right away know that the right one will break. So now we have our tertiary couple cat on with our alcohol. So now this first equivalent of each eye, we use the proton event, but now we have the eye minus. So now we have a very electoral filic center, carb okada and intermediate. And we have eye minus. So we know that I'm minus Will nuclear physically attack that site? Consuming the first equipment? Little each eye. Now we're at the second equivalent of each eye and we need to identify what's the nuclear file? What's electro foul? And right away we see that the auction ending Electron Ridge can act as our nuclear fuck picking up the proton. Always the auction has three months now, So the formal positive charge and it would spontaneously fall off. But that would form of primary Carver Kata. And remember that does not occur because primary cover cannons are not stable. So we know that our nuclear file being the second equivalent of eye minus well s go through Essen to substitution reaction to attack this electoral filic carbon making you bond we make up on we break this bond kicking off our good living group, which is water yielding us our final product with water. Next, we have this alcohol he allied with some sort of alcohol on the other side with sodium hydride members, sodium hydrate associates and they plus h minus any plus. Being a spectator, Ryan doesn't really do anything h minus being hydride highly reactive and want to be neutralized to h two. It will pick up the proton from the alcohol, giving us a formal negative oxygen. And then when you make a bomb, you break a bond. So those that signal bond between auction proton will break giving those too electrons that loan para lecture on on to the auction nucleus, making it highly nuclear filic. Now this is highly reactive and wants to react with anything it can and something that it can easily find is electoral Filic carbon on the adjacent carbon a few Carmen's down. So if you see here, this carbon is bound to a halo, which is a very good leaving group. And if you were to form a cyclic structure, we would have one, two, three, four, five member cyclic structures will be a cycle plantain. Remember anything over three carbons three to nine carbons of some six, three, two seven carbons that promotes intra molecular cycle ization. So we know that one. Those loan para lecture Hans will attack the lecture for, like, carbon making new bond. When you make a bond break upon that good leaving group chloride ion thing Hey, light, we'LL leave and now we form our cycle plantain And are you also have salt, sodium chloride and that h too?

This is the answer to Chapter 20. Problem number 55 fromthe Smith Organic chemistry Textbook. This problem asks us to draw a stepwise mechanism for each of these two reactions. S o n a r We have this lack tone that we're treating with metal magnesium bromide. Um, and we end up with a non cyclic product. Um, and if you count carbons, you can see that we've added to methyl groups on DSO. We need to draw a mechanism that's going to account for that. Okay. And so the first thing that's gonna happen here, um, is metal magnesium bromide eyes going thio, um, attack the carbon or carbon In the typical fashion of a grin. You're free agent. So, like this. And so after that first step, we have this intermediate. So we've added are metal group here we have the Alcock side here. I forgot to draw the oxygen right here, So let me fix that. Okay. S o we have this out cock side with negative charge. We've added our metal group. Um And so the next thing that can happen is the alc oxide can go to reform the double bond there that's going to cause this bond to break this other carbon oxygen bond. Um, and when that happens, that is going to open up our ring. Um, and so now, 345 six. God. So now we'll have this with a key tone here, Um, and the Alcock side over here. Okay. Um and so from here, Um, and let me just double check, right? Yes. So the problem specifies that we're using excess metal. Magnesium bromide. Um, and the reason it has to be excess is because we can now have. Ah, a second equivalent of metal. Magnesium bromide. Come in and attack this Kato. So again, this will proceed just like a regular Grenier. And so we now have another metal group here in an Alcock side here. And so we have two Alcock sides now. And when we, uh, go to do our water work up, um, we can take care of both of these at the same time. Eso we can draw both of these being pro donated at the same time as a single step. Um shouldn't omit negative charges, so each of these has a negative charge. Ah, and we can just draw each of them grabbing a proton from different water molecules simultaneously. And so that is going to get us to our final product, Which would be this dial. Okay, so that's part A s. So then, for part B, now we have this other lack tone that we're starting with. I mean, this time we're using, um, a diagram. You're DRI agent. So it's ah, butane chain with a magnesium bromide on either end of it. Um, okay. And so, uh, the starting step again is gonna be just a typical grin. Yeard. 1234 So we have this diagram. You're free agent. Um, that's going to come and attack Carbonell. So we should by now be familiar with with the electron movements here. So after that first step, uh, we will be here. So we have our, uh, Alcock side 1234 carbons and, uh, the other green yard or the Grenier that's on the other end of that chain Still intact again. That's a no cock side there. Um, and so very similarly to part a of this problem. The alc oxide can reform that double bond and the bond between the carbon and the other oxygen can break. And so when that happens, we end up with something that looks like this. So we'll put the magnesium bromide on this side. So our key tone will be here, and our Alcock side will be right here. Okay, Um and now, uh, the Grenier that we still have can attack our key tone. So just like this, when that happens that we're going to form a new five member dring. There's our new five member dring here is gonna be our Alcock side. And then here's the rest of molecule with the other Alcock side. So let me put my wound pairs in. So there's one elk oxide. There's the second Alcock side. Uh, And then once again, we can draw both of these being pro donated, um, in a single step by two different molecules water. So each of these congest grab a proton from water and that is going to get us to our final product here. Okay, so there we go. Um, And in both of these are the common theme was the gun. You agree? Agent is gonna attack the corporeal carbon. Um, that Alcock side that forms is actually gonna close back down and reform that double bond, which is going to break the bond between the carbon and the other oxygen in the lack tone from and open the lack tone up. Ah, And then from there we're going to get attack on the new key tone, either by another equivalent of Grenier, as in part A or by the Grenier. That was on the other end of our starting Grenier in Part B. Um, and then just pro nation of the resulting Alcock sides gets us to the final products on. And that's the answer to Chapter 20 problem number 55.

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