Hi. In this video, we're going to be going over a carbon. You'll chemistry specifically how we convert a compound with a carbon steel group to a hydrate. So these creations are very common. But before I begin, let me first go over what a carbon steel group it really is. So a carbon heel is a carbon that is double bonded to an oxygen. The important thing we have to remember is because of the difference in electro negativity. Is oxygen being a lot more of electro negative than carbon? We're going to have a intrinsic polarity in which carbon is partially positive, whereas oxygen is partially negative because it holds onto these electrons tighter and it hogs them. And so, in light of this knowledge, let's go over this reaction. So I'm converting formaldehyde, which is the most simple out to hide to its hydrate in the presence of water as well as an acid catalyst. So this reaction occurs in three main steps. First, we're going to protein eight, the carbon Neil oxygen. Then we're going to form a Covalin bond between a nuclear file as well as an electro filic region within this formaldehyde and then we're going to D protein eight water at the end. And this will be more clear as I draw this mechanism. So first, let's draw formaldehyde again. So in the first step, right in the first step, we have the acid catalyst. We have the acid catalyst and this carbon. Neil, this, uh, Carbonell oxygen is going to It's going to attack this hydrogen. And then these two electrons are going to be kicked off and put on this oxygen, uh, of this acid right here forming water. So what we have formed is this intermediate in which oxygen has a formal charge of plus wind. I realize here, very importantly, is that this carbon right here of this Carbonell group is still partially positive, making it the electro electro Filic region, right? It wants electrons because it's partially positive. So what ends up happening is we have water it here, which has which is going to be our nuclear file. It's a weak nuclear file, but that's going to attack this electro Philip carbon kicking these two electrons off onto oxygen so that oxygen can routine. It's formal charge of zero. And then we have this lovely water group as well as the two hydrogen. So we just formed a Covalin bond right right here, right here. Because of the reaction between our nuclear file water and the Electra Filic carbon region right here. And so in our last step, all we have to do is de protein. Eight is to de Protein eight. This water group, such that, uh, such that oxygen can then have a formal charge of zero. How we do that is water is going to then the protein eight, this water group right here and then what we're left with is formal in as we saw earlier. And then we also remake our acid as well. So that is the mechanism for this reaction. And I hope that this made a made this reaction more clear, as well as give you a better understanding of Carbondale chemistry.