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Explain how ycu could distinguish between the following pars of compounds: Which compounds would be water soluble?Butane and 2-chlorobutaneButane znd butanolbutano...

Question

Explain how ycu could distinguish between the following pars of compounds: Which compounds would be water soluble?Butane and 2-chlorobutaneButane znd butanolbutanol and 2-butanol1-butanol and butanoic acidIn the Lucas test; why do tertiary alcohols react fastest?

Explain how ycu could distinguish between the following pars of compounds: Which compounds would be water soluble? Butane and 2-chlorobutane Butane znd butanol butanol and 2-butanol 1-butanol and butanoic acid In the Lucas test; why do tertiary alcohols react fastest?



Answers

Explain why the properties of butane differ
from those of butanol.

Hi everyone in this video, we're going to be talking about scalability of organic molecules and how maybe the length of the chain really affects the scalability. And so scalability, we know it's where like the self is like, so as a very common example that I'm sure everybody knows and is familiar with, like for water for example, water is polar and polar molecules will dissolve in water. So that's why we know the oil and water don't mix. Oil is is very non polar. And so that's why when we try to mix oil and water, the oil and water is going to separate because it completely not noticeable and they don't like to mix just before just because of that reason. Um And so we're trying to think of organic compounds organic molecules. Um some of them can actually in fact be soluble in water, but it honestly just really depends on the length of the chain. So if you want to compare a couple of them right now. So if you know something that we're familiar with methanol chemical formula, remember you guys is a chemical formulas, This is methanol, right? Ch. Three oh H. And then if we wanted to do um ethanol at CH three CH 20 H. That's great. The name ethanol and then we're just trying to get longer here. Next up if you try to remember your names here it's gonna be pro open all something in the CH three C. H. Two C. H. 20 H. That's broken all and let's drive an extra one lets out here butin all so that's gonna be CH three CH two CH two ch to college, That's 1234. We can drop the night number of carbons. Yes I do. Okay perfect so now let's try to compare so if we can take a look here in terms of the length of the chains here, methanol and ethanol, propane, all they're they're all pretty solid fuel and water. And the reason being is that the the alcohol is the portion that is polar. Right? So let's go and circle that part. Let's take my drawing here. The alcohol and every single one of these also. Um you know, let's go ahead and write and circle that as well. The alcohol portion is the polar part of the monkey. And that's the part that's going to get dissolved in water. Everything else is non polar. So everything else? Every other part of the chain is non polar. Right? But now it's the length that will determine how much of the or if the molecule itself is going to get dissolved. So the takeaway is this the longer the chain gets, the more hydrophobic a terminal alcohol gets because more of the molecule is going to be end up being non polar than polar. So methanol, ethanol and propranolol, they're all very, very solid fuel and water there rather compact. Once you start getting into four carbon chains like beautiful. That's when you start to get more of the molecule being more non polar than polar. And so you are trying to essentially mix again, this is an organic molecules. So when you're trying to make something organic with something as polar as water, you're not going to get a lot of mixing, you know, still soluble in water but not nearly as soluble as it as proponent ethanol and methanol are. So just definitely keep that in mind. Once this change starts getting, once it starts getting up to the four carbon chain or longer more of the molecule is non polar than polar. And so it is essentially not miss herbal or in other words it is not a soluble. Hopefully this helps. And good luck with problems

So this question asks us why organic acids and alcohols consumptive times dissolved in water, but most hydrocarbons don't. And so the concept behind this is you really have to understand the idea behind polar bonds. So here we have a water molecule, and, of course, water is composed of one oxygen and two hydrogen is, and so that oxygen and that hydrogen are sharing two electrons between them, one from the oxygen one imagine, and that one's also sharing two electrons. But the sharing is not equal, so water in the in the hydrogen oxygen bond, the hydrogen does not pull on the electron as hard as the oxygen does theocracy. Gin is more electro negative, and so the electron spends more of its time around the oxygen than it does around the hydrogen. And so what that ends up with is what we call a polar bond. And so we end up with the oxygen, having kind of a negative charge, not a completely negative one charge, but maybe like a negative half charge, sort of on the the hydrogen have a positive partial charge, and one of the reasons that's important is because it means that other particles that have positive or negative charges either complete positive and negative charges like in the case of sodium ions being positively charged in chloride ions. Being negatively charged, sodium chloride can dissolve in water very easily because those positive so diem's will find the negative side of the oxygen of the water molecule. In the negative. Chlorine will find the will. Find the positive side. But hydrocarbons do not have those charges and do not have that polarity most of the time. So if we think about a propane while pro pains, not a not a liquid. So let's go ahead and do butane. I guess so. Butane, the carbon and the hydrogen are going to be much more equal in sharing the electrons, but also this molecule is quite symmetrical. Eso we end up not really not really having a positive or a negative side to this butane, so because it doesn't have a positive or a negative side. We call it non polar, and we call it hydrophobic. So hydrophobic means it's afraid of water, whereas something that dissolves easily and what it would be Hydra Felix, something that likes water Now. If we were to add an alcohol group to this. So we take off this hydrogen doesn't really matter which hydrogen. But let's do that one. And we add the O. H. Well, now guess what we have that O h. Bond, just like we had before. Which means that we end up with a slightly positive hydrogen and a slightly negative oxygen. And now, suddenly this is something that can mix a lot more easily into the water. Similarly, if we have a carb, oxalic acid and organic acid, organic acids will also have that O H group. But in addition to the O H group, they have that a double bonded oxygen on the end as well. So, uh, in the case of an acid, it's even more pronounced because some of the acid molecules will even disassociate. Right. So what that means is, we end up with this hydrogen separating out and becoming an H plus, and therefore, this whole particle mainly on this side is a complete negative rights. We ended with a negative Ah, full negative. Not just a partial negative. So that would actually be something that that reacted fairly well that dissolved fairly well in the water. So uh, it all has to do again with the polarity of the molecules with the idea that, uh, that bonds that are unequally shared end up with these positive and negative charges, and positives and negatives can attract each other. So that's the basis for, uh, for mixing for and for non mixing chemicals. And so oil and water, right? It's like oil and water. You hear it all the time. Well, in this case is literally like oil and water because oil or hydrocarbons that don't have those oxygen's on them and so they don't they can't mix with water.

Okay. So we determine why alcohol is having a little boiling point than corrosive acids and there's a few things that affect the boiling point. The first is the terror bombing and the most parts of the bonding is going to lead to the highest boiling point is ionic. Next one is hydrogen about him. And this is followed by Dapple, Dapple interactions or polar government bond. The last one is on an explosion forces or LDF, that's the weakest of this type of bonds. The next one is the like the length of the chain were the number of carbon atoms. So the length of chain increases. It's gonna have a higher boiling point because we're going to have a large service area and also more interaction between neighboring atoms. So we're going to increase these on inspiration forces as the length of chain increases. The third point is branching. If this does occur, it's going to lower the boiling point because we have last surface area unless interaction between the atoms. So looking at a car bus, like acid and alcohol, carbonic acid as the CO2 H function group. And if we had a three carbon alcohol, this would be perfect like acid Comparing this to a three carbon alcohol should be personal personal and the car box of acid is capable of inter molecular hydrogen bonding. So the auction of the cartoon can hydrogen bond with the hydrogen of the carbonic acid. The oxygen. The key tuned to hydrogen bond with ha jin of the alcohol right here. So because this is going to it's a hard boiling point. The alcohol which can only undergo this type of arm interaction. Another point is the fact that this C. 02 Bonnard here is very polarized and a more polarized bond is going to lead to, it's a more energy to break it. Which is why if we have the top members of the keto and idle Tanamor. So the kyoto Tanamor is going to be a key tune and if we remove Britain to activate this reaction strongly our crackly we can get this and this will be the final form and this is the last table because they see yeah keane is less polarized than the C. Davant. Oh these auctions of reaction negative in carbon and as a result could save more energy to break this bond instead of the Aachen which is why the uniform is less stable in Akita. And this is also gonna make the um Use this bond is more polarized between the two auctions and the carbon atom. It's gonna be the carbon moral extra film. But also it's going to raise the boiling point of it will be more polarized bonds. It's gonna raise the boiling point as opposed to just the one auction here which is not, it's not as polarized bond. The second point is a more pull her as bond for the car boss of acid. And the first point was that we have the inch molecular bonding. So for those two reasons gonna lead to higher boiling point

Both of these compounds air fairly soluble in water, die it'LL either has an oxygen, which conform a hydrogen bond to the hydrogen of water and thie oxygen. Hydrogen bond here can also well the oxygen could hydrogen bond to the hydrogen water, but the oxygen of water can also hydrogen bond, too. This hydrogen of the alcohol, so they're both fairly water soluble. Why does tribunal had a greater boiling point? Well, that is because when it's alone without the water, it's still has hydrogen bonding. Where's Thie either? Alone doesn't have a hydrogen to hydrogen bond, too, if you don't have the hydrogen to be donated. Therefore, this is going to have a lower boiling point than beautiful.


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