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What are the differences between sexual and natural selection? Define and explain each (including the basic principles of evolutionary changes and natural selection...

Question

What are the differences between sexual and natural selection? Define and explain each (including the basic principles of evolutionary changes and natural selection) with examples from the readings and class.Name two species with non-genetic sex determination and describe the effective mechanism_Describe the key evolutionary transitions that emerged as sexual organisms transitioned from unimorphic t0 dimorphic and how this led to sexual selection. Explain with examples from readings and articles

What are the differences between sexual and natural selection? Define and explain each (including the basic principles of evolutionary changes and natural selection) with examples from the readings and class. Name two species with non-genetic sex determination and describe the effective mechanism_ Describe the key evolutionary transitions that emerged as sexual organisms transitioned from unimorphic t0 dimorphic and how this led to sexual selection. Explain with examples from readings and articles mentioned in class:



Answers

In what ways are the effects of sexual selection, disruptive selection, and nonrandom mating different? How are they similar?

Problem. Seven from Chapter 50 is looking at the two types of reproduction. We have sexual reproduction, the end, a sexual reproduction in sexual reproduction. The offspring are going to be genetically different, and this is due to the production of happily gam eats and processes such as my Asus. Now, in a sexual reproduction which includes processes such as parthenogenesis, budding fishing, the offspring will be genetically identical. How are you? So that is the main difference between these two types of reproduction. Sexual us for indirectly different a sexual offspring genetically identical.

The difference between interest sexual selection in the inter sexual selection. So, as the intra part implies, think of within as in with intramural sports or something like that. Ah, interest. Sexual selection is where the decision about who mates is made by individuals of one gender typically male, but certainly not always. So. Here you have, ah, individuals that are typically competing for access to the other gender. Oh, you either for access to the other gender. And we're asked for some traits that often show up in interest sexual selection. And, of course, it depends on the species. Ah, if size often will play. But you have sexual line dwarfism because in case of state males that fight being larger helps him win their battles. It may be that they have weapons like horns or antlers that they can use to, uh, push each other around with uh, and then they often are. Territorial is what also meals will establish a territory and then fight to keep other males out of that territory and again, sometimes females. To this, depending on the easies and in trust in inter sexual selection. Of course, you have a reversed situation in that rather than having individuals compete fractures the other gender, Um, it's the members of one gender shoes, those of the other gender to mate with. And again, it's typically females competing for access choosing males, but not always so. Members of one gender are choosing those of the other. So in this case, traits that are offer involved in in being chosen, uh, are quite variable. Often they have to do with showing this, um, so think of birds having elaborate tales are plume. It's or something like this. Colors bright colors, uh, for some species come into play. It may be a song the book describes, for example, to hunger of frogs on the songs they're making, Um, and it can be some kind of mating ritual. So the females, for example, may choose males who can do an elaborate dance. Well, um, and there are other things. For example, in some species, males bring females food as a one measure of their their desire ability. So inter sexual is when individuals compete for access to the other gender eso. Often it's males competing prices. Two females in inter sexual selection to members of wonder are choosing those of the other. Um, so does the two main kinds of sexual

So the question is asking us how selection occurs in the actual process of natural selection. Eso will again examine this question using, um, Darwin's finches on the Galapagos. Um, so you have, um, finches on the Galapagos that are breeding and producing offspring. Um, more often than not, the offspring of these finches tend to have the same beak size as the parent. But some will have their beak a little bit larger, and some will have the big A little bit smaller. Um, and you can assume that this is true for all finches on the islands. So then what you end up getting is this distribution of all finches on the Galapagos, where a minority have small weeks. Another minority have, um, large beaks. But most of the finches have average sized beaks. Um, and recalling the text, it was mentioned that during dry seasons on the islands, plants produce large, tough seeds. Um, and these seeds confer ah, difficulty for the finches, depending on their beak sized. Um, these large and tough seeds air easily handled by large beaks but are difficult to open for small beaks. So finches with small beaks are unable to um handle these seeds and have lo have lower fitness in dry seasons. Um, and in rainy seasons, plants produce small soft seeds. Um, and these small soft seeds are easily handled by small beaks. Um, which give them higher for this during this PC Zinn's. But the seeds are difficult to handle for large beaks. So in the rainy seasons, the, um, the large beaks have lower fitness in the scenario, um, so the way selection occurs is through generate three generations and flew multiple seasons. Say, for example, that there was a period with multiple dry seasons. So what you'd see is that, um, following one generation of the finches, there would tend to be more finches, um, with larger beak size and the next generation of finches. If these dry seasons persist would also be the same. So overall the proportion of finches on the islands which shift until most of the benches on the islands have large beak sizes. If these dry seasons persists. And this would be true, um, for protesting rainy seasons as well, um, with finches with small beaks. And that is because, um, these environmental conditions the dry seasons, where the rainy seasons are selecting for the treat that offer the highest fitness in terms of dry seasons, the trade that offers the highest fitness is having large beaks in in rainy seasons. The trade that offers the highest fitness is having small kicks, and it is through these persistent conditions and, um, the advantage increased fitness that selection occurs.

Carrot. Herbal differences are a large part of natural selection. So natural selection is the way in which an organism population evolves. No, this has to occur in a population. You can't have just a single organism evolving, and it has to occur over a long period of time. Right? Natural selection consists of certain advantages or certain disadvantages arising in a population of organisms. Considering here we have a white moth and here we have a black moth. And for natural selection, we can have two scenarios. So in scenario A, this is a very snowy environment. So we have the white moth and we have the black moth. When these two moths survive in the environment, they're going to be eaten by certain predators around. So if it's snowy in the environment, the white moths have the advantage because they're going to blend in with the snow Better. However, the black moths are not going to blend in, and they're going to be eaten more often. Now. These this quality of being a white mouth has to be able to pass on to the next generation of moths, and now the population will eventually evolve to only be in the majority white models. However, if we talk about an industrial environment, say, with a nearby factory that releases soot into the environment now the black moth has the advantage because it can blend in with the black suit in the environment. So now the white moth is that a less advantage? And now the black moth trait of being black is going to be passed on to the next generation. These changes need to be heritable because it's going to change the population over time to either shift to become, in this case, a majority of white mobs or a majority of black bombs. And it's what keeps the population healthy, surviving, adaptive and able to live in balance with the other organisms in the environment. So this kind of explains the process of natural selection and how it helps shape an organism derivative in order to become survivable and advantageous in its own environment.


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