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CHES12-01: Bioinorganic Chemistry: Assignment #3 Name DateThe binding of Oz to hemoglobin exhibits 'cooperative' effect. Briefly explain the phenomenon of...

Question

CHES12-01: Bioinorganic Chemistry: Assignment #3 Name DateThe binding of Oz to hemoglobin exhibits 'cooperative' effect. Briefly explain the phenomenon of cooperativity exhibited by the hemoglobin molecules in the binding of oxygen: The reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (COJHCOa) is catalyzed with remarkable rate enhancement by metallo-protein called carbonic anhydrase (CA): Write the equation for the hydration of COz.What is the active metal center in CA?Briefly describe the coor

CHES12-01: Bioinorganic Chemistry: Assignment #3 Name Date The binding of Oz to hemoglobin exhibits 'cooperative' effect. Briefly explain the phenomenon of cooperativity exhibited by the hemoglobin molecules in the binding of oxygen: The reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (COJHCOa) is catalyzed with remarkable rate enhancement by metallo-protein called carbonic anhydrase (CA): Write the equation for the hydration of COz. What is the active metal center in CA? Briefly describe the coordination mode of the metal ion in CA to histidine in its active or resting state



Answers

Briefly explain the phenomenon of cooperativity exhibited by the hemoglobin molecule in binding oxygen.

We're going to be discussing hemoglobin and equilibrium. For this question. We have three situations. And in each of those situations, situations will decide which side of this equation of this chemical reaction is favorite and what product we're trying to get because of that situation. Okay, for our first question, let's go. This color first scenario, which form of hemoglobin that'll be either this for this one of those two is favored in the lungs in the lungs, which have high 02 concentration. So if I have high 02 concentration as I don't know ones, which side of this equation would be favored? Well, if we increase the concentration of 02 we will shift right. And the H B 02 would be favored the HBO to would be favored in the laws. Okay. And let me try to raise a couple of these. Sorry, it's not perfect, but I'm sure you figured out. Okay. Now for our second scenario, let's read what our second scenario eyes, um, be in body tissues. Cells are released releasing co two. So co two is released. Dream metabolism to tissues in the body. So you haven't You have a little excess CO two and then that's going to form. Um, the blood is gonna be a little bit more acidic here. What would be a tinge? More acidic. Because carbonic gas, it small amount of carbonic acid is formed, so we'll have a little bit higher acidity and which form of hemoglobin is favored. So which form of hemoglobin is favored under a city conditions which form I wrote arm again is favored for those acidic conditions. Okay, so in a city conditions this concentration will increase, shifting our equilibrium to the left. So the H B H plus will be favored in tissues with a higher concentration. Ah, higher acidity. Okay, lets see race again and look at our third and final scenario, and this one will do in green. So for 1/3 scenario, were asked when you hyperventilate when her better person hyperventilates the concentration of co two, he goes down the CEO to concentration, and I was 302 Concentration decreases. So Theo to decreases. How does this affect the above equilibrium? So what will the shift b if the she c 02 decreases co two decreases? Um, that's gonna be like this is gonna shipped us to the right. If the sheer Theo to decreases, it means that this is going to decrease. This will shift the reaction to the right so it'll shift right. And then this has another piece for the question. When you are hyperventilating, sometimes you're told to breathe into a paper bag. And why would that help? Well, your equilibrium is shifting to the right because this is the concentration, the acidity. It's going to be tied up with your H plus us. If you breathe into a paper bag, you're gonna be breathing in more CO two. And if you breathe in more CO two, it's going to increase this concentration and shipped this concentration back to the left. That's it.

So the turn of a number of an anti mr find us the number of substrate molecules transformed per unit of time by one single and time or a single catalytic site when we have saturated with substrate our equation of interest here we have cake out is equal to be Max. Slide by ET ET is equal to the total models of the active site. So what we can do is calculate the max here fast. So be Max is equal to most of CO two by 25 minutes just equal to right, divided by molecular weight most flat five minutes, which is equal to not 0.30 g per meant divided by 44 g per mole. So what we get is a V max value off 6.8 times 10 to the minus three malls Pirmin eso the amount of enzymes, then models we can also calculate. So we have 10 micrograms, most played by 1 g, divided by 10 to the six micrograms to buy the or by 30,000 from the mall. We could value off 3.3 times 10 to minus 10 miles. So we get K cap is equal to 6.8 times 10th minus three. Most women fight that by 3.3 times. 10 to the minus 10 malls comes like our malls. We're going to get solution in men's Okay, Cat is equal to two point Cerro times 10 to the seven minutes to minus one.

In terms of crystal field splitting let's categories oxygen as a strong or weak field. Liggan. So we're giving some information. Oxy. Hemoglobin. So is a low spin complex. Yeah, which indicates that oxygen must be a strong field. Liggins, because in the peace of a strong field, the M four a p is more compared to the pairing energy. So electrons will pair up to give be a little spin complex since the entropy is high Mhm. Yeah, for oxy hemoglobin. Mhm. It absorbs small wavelengths of light. Yeah, and appears red water is a weak field ligand. So the M Papi is less compared to the pairing energy resulting in a high spin complex. Since the baby is less, it absorbs hi wavelengths of light and appears blue.

So we know that hemoglobin transports oxygen within our blood. Now the reaction we have here. So hemoglobin abbreviated as HB as this Croat nated form. But then, when we add oxygen, we get this oxygenated form. It's four oxygen's because we have four Iron Adams within the hemoglobin that serves the binding sites. So this oxygen binding is ph dependent, as we can see from the inclusion of age plus. So the first question is, what form of the hemoglobin, whether it's a protein ated form of the oxygenated form, is preferred in the lungs or in cells. So in lungs, we have a lot of 02 That's where all the 02 is coming from. So that's going to shift the reaction so the equilibrium favors the oxygenated form. However, in cells, we're not gonna have that oxygen. So we're gonna shift back to this form. So the next question asset s about when someone hyperventilates so basically, the concentration of co two and the blood decreases. So how does this affect the oxygen binding equilibrium? Well, co two, when it dissolves forms and acid, and that acid increases the number of protons or increases the age plus. So if we remove the CEO too, we're decreasing the amount of age plus. So if we remove that co two, we're basically shifting this original reaction back to this form. So we're removing. Sorry. Excuse me. We're shifting. I wrote that wrong. We're shifting because we're removing this Hydrogen were shifting to this form here, but this oxygen is stuck in the hemoglobin. So if there's too little h plus, this oxygen can't actually be removed from the hemoglobin and therefore that oxygen can't make it to the cells. Now, lastly, we're told, when a person suffers a cardiac arrest, sodium bicarbonate is injected, so why would that help us? So, during a cardiac arrest, C 02 levels increase, meaning the pH of blood decreases. So when we add bicarbonate, we actually balance the pH back me, increase the ph.


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