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Pocbcop cokooh eavodeond (xendad (4 8,4 puo covalent) would 4to4t8t which ones 6l thcs follewinp; pairs of atorns? Ak Ido We1 U IlaIe iQuestionAdstuuing (he Octet I...

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Pocbcop cokooh eavodeond (xendad (4 8,4 puo covalent) would 4to4t8t which ones 6l thcs follewinp; pairs of atorns? Ak Ido We1 U IlaIe iQuestionAdstuuing (he Octet Iule In obcycd; how Many covnlent bondu will ntrogen atom form to give a formal charge of zero?

pocbcop cokooh eavodeond (xendad (4 8,4 puo covalent) would 4to4t8t which ones 6l thcs follewinp; pairs of atorns? Ak Ido We 1 U Ila Ie i Question Adstuuing (he Octet Iule In obcycd; how Many covnlent bondu will ntrogen atom form to give a formal charge of zero?



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Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion in brackets. Write resonance structures if necessary. a. $\mathrm{BaCO}_{3}$ b. $\mathrm{Ca}(\mathrm{OH})_{2}$ c. $\mathrm{KNO}_{3}$ d. I.ilo

So prevalent bonding is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons. On a lowest structure is the representation are Barker Vaillant bonding, which we just defined. Where we have shared electron pairs are shown is either dashes or a pair of dots between two atoms and alone para chyna's dots on individual atoms. So the first thing we're doing is drawing out the lowest structure of H G 22 plus on what we have is plus one charge on each. So next we're during Eman 207 What we have is and oh, um and each a man is surrounded by another three extra atom. Remember, we need to draw in our lone pairs. We also need cetera in article bonds. That means that each oxygen that is SP two hybridized will have two lone pairs as well as the central oxygen, even though it's going to be three hybridized. So next we calculate our formal charge and it has a full charge of zero. So the next one weaken do is O S 04 Where we have O s in the center. Portable bonds oxygen's to learn pairs on each oxygen on. We have a formal charge of zero again on this final structure

Here we are continuing to draw out some lower structures. So firstly phosphorus oxygen, oxygen, oxygen and another oxygen, where they all have three line powers here, apart from one of them has a double bond. And so we have three miners charge. And of course we can have resonance using any three of these formal negative charges. So that means that we've got three different forms of resonance. Well, overall we have three minus charge on the species. Next we've got C N minus. So we've got carbon, we can have a triple bond to the nitrogen where we need a formal negative charge on the carbon to have it with a full lone pair. Next we have also 3 to-. So we have a sofa where the double bond oxygen and then we've got to oxygen's that have minus charges that give us our two minus. And again here you can see that we will have resonance because we have negative charges on the oxygen's. We've got resonance from two different positions that will take place in separate events, and they will have a knock on effect with this double bond. Next we have cielo to minus. So what we have is chlorine, double bond oxygen, single bond oxygen too long pairs on the chlorine. The oxygen with the single bond has a formal negative charge, and here we have resonance that can bounce between the two oxygen's.

Local bond is a lasting interaction that exists between atoms ions and molecules which enables the formation are chemical compounds. So, for example, you can have ionic compounds, we can have Covalin. So with ionic compounds, these are formed when we have a large difference in electric negativity between the two species and often a metal and nonmetal. Whereas Covalin compounds are formed between species that have a smaller difference in election negativity and they're often both non metals. So firstly we have C a N 032 This is ionic, this is because of calcium that is group two hours nine. Extremist group five oxygen's group six, so that really spatially far apart on the periodic table. So therefore we generate C A two plus. I know 3-. Following on from this, we have H two SE. This is a Covalin interaction because we have shared power electrons existing between the two. Following on from this, we have K and oh three. So this is an ionic interaction because we have K plus and N +03 minus. Next we have CACL two. So what we have here, c H c L two. We have calcium see A two plus Group two and chlorine, Which is group seven. So therefore we have an ionic interaction because the very large difference in electro negativity Next We Have H two CO 3. So we don't have any metals involved here. This is equivalent punk compound because we have shared pairs of electrons Next Job & Cl three. This is also a prevalent compound. So we don't have a very big difference in electric negativity between our Group five and our Group seven species here. And so we have a covenant compound again next year. LI 20. This is ironic. We have lithium plus O two minus. So we have an electrostatic interaction. So we don't have shared pairs of electrons. We have a reduction and oxidation of the species. Next we have N two H four. This is a convenient interaction because we have shared pairs of electrons. Next we have SOCL two violent interaction because we have shared pairs of electrons. Yeah, so from this exercise we know that covalin compounds for when we have shared powers of electrons. And ionic interactions form when we have the transfer of a night jOHN from our metal to a non metal.

This question is a good example of a categorization question. So let's get started. Uh, unfortunate, but unfortunately, there isn't really any easy way we have right now to remember what different co Vaillant solids are from molecular solids. So we're just gonna have to memorize the co Vaillant solids because there are a lot less surveillance solids than there are molecular solids. Classico Vaillant solid include graphite diamond, silicon and silicon dioxide. So right off the bat we see were given Cellini um eight. Well, we know right away that isn't one of the co violence that we remember. So we'll put it in our molecular group, then were given HBR. That is also not one of the ones that we know as our Couvillon solids. So we'll put it in our molecular group, then were given Silicon silicon. We do know forms co Vaillant Bombing and CO. Vaillant Crystals. So we'll put it down with our co Vaillant solids. Then we have carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide. We know for a fact is not available and is molecular. Now we have next up, Harman Carbon is a very good example of a CO Vaillant solid. So we're gonna go ahead and put it down in our Covalin group remembering that carbon forms both graphite and diamond co Vaillant Networks. Then we have p 406 This is not a co Vaillant network. It is another one of those classic molecular And last but not least, we have Yes, I h four. Now, you might be fooled into thinking that this might be a co Vaillant network due to the fact it has silicon in it. But s I h four is not one of the classic co violence that we've remembered remembering that only silicon and silicon dioxide are Kobelev networks that we are familiar with. So s I H four is one of our molecular solids.


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