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DesciideChapter 19 Describe Ihe stages of pre-mRNA splicing How the intron splicing process elated the transport of mRNA from the nucleus the cytoplasm?Chapter 22 I...

Question

DesciideChapter 19 Describe Ihe stages of pre-mRNA splicing How the intron splicing process elated the transport of mRNA from the nucleus the cytoplasm?Chapter 22 In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes (RNAs are active translation How many IRNAs are active on the ribosome? Explain The first amino acid added polypeplide metnionine. polypeptide Will have internal methionines well, Why are separale (RNAs for melhionine used for translaton initation and translation elongation; and how are Ihos

Desciide Chapter 19 Describe Ihe stages of pre-mRNA splicing How the intron splicing process elated the transport of mRNA from the nucleus the cytoplasm? Chapter 22 In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes (RNAs are active translation How many IRNAs are active on the ribosome? Explain The first amino acid added polypeplide metnionine. polypeptide Will have internal methionines well, Why are separale (RNAs for melhionine used for translaton initation and translation elongation; and how are Ihose IRNAs distinguished by the rbosome in - prokaryote?



Answers

BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Explain how a frameshift in reading mRNA affects the translation of the mRNA for the IAV viral protease.

Action here wants us to find the amino acid sequences from the falling M r in a segment. So for the 1st 1 here, um, I l e um And then we have si si, si, si, si, si If you look at the code on chart is going Teoh, give us pro leans a p r o new Yugi is going to give us help you on g a u in this particular case is going Teoh, give us a peek for Be here. It's a longer sequence so it's going to be CCU So p r o c g c is another code on and that encodes for a RG um, a C G is going to encode for T h r Um C c A is going to in total for P r O and G A is going to encode for the stop code on for see here we have a u. G, which is the start code on a meth. I need to see a sea is going Teoh, give us h I s a G is gonna give us out by us. Um G A is going to give us g l u g U G is going to give us p a l and C u G is gonna give us out you

Tr Nasar One old. They are in a are transcribed translated sorry into Pretty, and they have a very special function that helped with translation making it happen. Uh, they basically take a amino acid and find to specific site on an Arnie molecule in the Riva Zone. And then they synthesizing us by the presents is says the protein by dropping immuno acid one of the time. So in a draw, couple pictures of the TR NATO help us get a better understanding of this question. First, is the two d kind of boarding what's going on? It could help us to see some of how it's structured. Um, so this is a two D, and then it folds itself. You could have a twisty, twisted little T. That's what we call it T R Day. Also called trades for our date. It almost looks like a T, um, so the portion of here could circle in red. Both of these is the amino acid binding site, and this is just one of the important sequences that must be conserved. It's one of the sequences. They're very significant to its function because this is where it attaches to any amino acid that this specific Tierney's carried. So so it picks it up, binds and then when it gets the bribe, his own associates and leaves the immuno acid down here, highlight in black is the It's a code own. So this is what's gonna match up What states? Hey, hey, hey. It's gonna match up to you. You, you on the art and mark, it'll that's gonna bind, too. So that's another really important sequence. And these have to be intentionally conserved because if they're not, then it's gonna buy the wrong amino acid where not find anything at all or match up to the rolling code on marinade. So the sequence is very significant for TRD. That being said, we're going consider a mutation in either one of these four stems, one to three for what it could do. Uh, well, it could throw things off, um, and change the shape firstly, and then maybe change things around even down here in the code on binding sequence or the acid biting sequence, and essentially stop it from bunny. And you know what I said or the code on core change that spot on the tear. And so this could have drastic consequences of the function, Um, and then the produce protein in the organism when therefore have a wrong residue. Or maybe Messi residue if the kid from performance function of tear and they can't drop amino acid where it needs to go. So this would be no ideal by any means, Um, and that's why this sequence is so significant again into yard.

Okay, so let's say they sell that are black Lang's and membrane vein. Er, black line is the new clues. The red line is the DNA blue lines are are in a molecules, and the green dots are ribosomes. So how does a eukaryotic gene end off coding approaching? Okay, so first of all, the gene is a piece of DNA sequence of DNA encoding information for the creation of a protein or, uh, another name molecule. Which means that after all, gene is any part of DNA that could be expressed. Um, no Eukaryotic ironies when they are produced a pro career are too that they could be used for translation exact all right after they are created. And as there is no nucleus, they Congar oh, directly to write songs and start being translated now for eukaryotic grenades. That's not the case. They need cap and a tail to be added after transcription has finished. And then there is spicy a process through its entrance, which are sequences inside there. Neither do not code for any useful information are cut out. And then the exons, which is on the other parts. The useful parts are sewn back together so that makes for a fully mature are in a m earn a that is that can go, uh, get translated now, what is the process of translation? So, um, the basis of Amorin a bond with the basis off are are in a in ribosomes in order for them to come together and then the enzymes protein parts of the RAB ISMs recognized this start code in off the Amorin A and, um, a tear in a we're messing comes along and is added to the whole to the group, Let's say and then I'm Renee moves relative to the ripe. Assume one code on at a time. Coders being triplets of nuclear sites that code for specific AM in acid. And then Tierney's come along with the appropriate AMN acids and bonds through their anti cones with the currents in the marin A. Now those amino acids form, um, peptide bonds between them with our convoy and bones, of course. And then there are two Tierney's at the same time in the ribosome, and then the one carrying the last of the two amino acids leaves. And so there is, like one tear in a molecule with chain whole chain of AMN assets connected to it. Uh, most of the time. Now, the whole process off relegation off the fact that chain stops at the stop code on and the chain is released in the cell. Uh, and the Robinsons can be used for translating other ah irony molecules. Now, this protein needs to fold, and it can prefer fulfill its purpose.

We have these steps of translation. And we have to put mid water. So list the letters first. Okay some A is A T. RNA molecule carrying amino acid binds at the antique open site. The for representing links of first amino acids and so on. Let's just start at the first stage of translation. What happens first? So transcription has already happened. We haven't had an M. R. N. A. We also have a robson which is going to be our cited translation. The first thing that happens is E. The mrna binds to the Robertson. What will happen after that? So finding has occurred next we need to start being mean elastic chain and we start that the stock coding. So it's going to be A is next. So we bring in my opinion and that binds the anti code on site on the start code on what happens next. Well after the first amino acids we need a second amino acids. So it's going to hate. So tr an Abrams in the second amino acid found for second code on. So we have two codings found tuna. What will come after that. Well next we need a peptide bonds to form. So that will be be So between the mediterranean and the second amino acids we form a peptide bonds and that starts the chain. Next what happens well before the chain can continue. It shuts along. And the first year in a now separated my opinion is released. So it's going to be she next the the amino acid chain can now work. So there'll be a steady compare belt of the crn is bringing amino acids and then finding and then after a two steps, just attach drink. So next we'll be seeing the eurozone will link each one in the clothing chain. And still. So the last step we can already predict and is going to be F. B. Separation And before bats Z. for stop coding. So we can predict those because those are the last steps in 13 synthesis. First it reaches the stop code on and then it completely detached separates the completed chain. So in between those is I. Which is the tyrannies are released. So between C and I. It's having each amino acid is linked and then the T. RNA is released. So this is the order of events.


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