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This question has multiple parts. Work all the parts to get the most points.Issign oxidation states for all atoms in each of the following compounds_NaBiO: Na:Bi:HS...

Question

This question has multiple parts. Work all the parts to get the most points.Issign oxidation states for all atoms in each of the following compounds_NaBiO: Na:Bi:HSOsNa2SzO3Na_

This question has multiple parts. Work all the parts to get the most points. Issign oxidation states for all atoms in each of the following compounds_ NaBiO: Na: Bi: HSOs Na2SzO3 Na_



Answers

Assign oxidation states to all of the atoms in each of the following: a. $\mathrm{Na}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}$ b. $\mathrm{NaH}_{2} \mathrm{PO}_{4}$ c. $\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{HPO}_{4}$ d. $\mathrm{Na}_{3} \mathrm{P}$

So in this example, we're going to be going over some ionic compounds and assigning oxidation states in those compounds. So the most important rule for this one is that any ion, whether it's Polly Atomic ion or a mono atomic ion, the net oxidation state of its, uh, constituents is going to be the charge of the ion. So we'll start with sodium creepy. Mhm. Um, and there's gonna be a two here also, so I like to separate them as the positive and negative part of the iron. So chrome is one that we just should know that the total charge is always going to be negative, too, because this is neutral compound, you know that. And because we know so Diem's place in the periodic table, you know that this is going to equal positive, too. Apologize, for we got a little more clear positive, too negative. Two total so sodium has to two molecules equaling plus two we can do two divided by two is going to equal, plus one for one sodium Adam and for chromite, we have a total of negative chill. I'm going to start with oxygen. Oxygen are more electro negative, Adam in this case and starting with our electro negative, Adam, we would want to think about what charges normally forms in an ionic compound that is going to be negative, too. Oxygen's oxidation state is almost always going to be negative too. Um, and then we get some math to find out. Chromium in this case so negative to charge her oxygen times four less C R. Is going to equal the total charge of chrome eight, which is negative two. So this case, we have negative two plus eat. So I'm just going to equal I'm sorry, not plus six. Um, plus four had a little math era there. So plus four, just because we want that charged equal. Negative, too. Mhm. So, yeah, sorry about that. Negative plus six was correct. Yeah, we have negative eight plus six that is going to equal negative, too. And that's appropriate. We have sodium die crummy. So Daddy Chromite has the same charge as crummy of negative. Two sodium is the same deal. Here we have sodium starch is plus one because it's the first column element of the periodic table. And because we know the plus two from +21 plus sodium czar cancelling out that dick roommate. So plus one for sodium is oxidation state. And then you can do the math again for di chromite, so Oxygen is going to have its own oxidation. State of negative two. We always start with oxygen and these ones so negative two times seven plus two time C r. Equals negative two. So in this one, we have two Sequels. Negative. 12. It's like a positive 12 having a hard time with my addition today. You too, cr oh, he looks like we're still going to have an answer of 68 is negative. Two plus 14 is 12. Divided by two is six. So plus six for chromium in this case, 782 oh, six. That's one for sodium, so we'll get rid of this one. Make more room for CND. Yeah, helping. It's really helpful to set up those algebraic expressions just so you can double check, even though, but also maybe do them in your head so we'll go off with hurt. See, she's a little different. We have. So in this one we have another Iona compound. So we're starting with, uh, chlorine because chlorine are more electro negative atom. So we can we know the electrons are going to go towards chlorine, and chromium is a little more unpredictable just because if it's placed on the periodic table So we're going to find chlorine first, which is going to be negative one. It's a halogen. That's how I would normally ionizing the compound we know and then find premiums. Just with our little math expressions, we have negative one times three cents or three. Chlorine? Yes. Zero. In this case, um, because we are we have a whole compound, not just ions like we separated them into last time. This tells us, in this case, chromium can take on a plus three oxidation state to cancel out. Um, the chlorine. Yeah, for D Lastly, two. Oh three. So, this one, we're going to start like we did on our ions. Oxygen is are more electro negative, atom, and we know it forms a negative two ion by now. So we just next set up our expression Negative. Two times three oxygen molecules, plus two times unknown oxidation. State of chromium equals zero. This is not an ion. It's a neutral compound. So, B, what have six divided by two equals three for the oxidation state of chromium. Here we can always just double check here three times two plus three times negative two is zero.

So this problem we want to find oxidation states for all of the different elements in each of the compounds we're gonna be looking at. So let's start with a and in a U C k them and Oh, for so we know a couple of these going into it. We know that Tassio has a charge of plus one, and Oxygen has a charge of minus two. And looking at the total charge, we can see the total charge is zero. So if we look, just talk to that. The potassium has a charge of positive one. This minga knees, we aren't sure. And the Austin has a charge of negative two based on where they are in the periodic table and what they usually are. And so, in order to find all the oxidation states, we're going to send it equal to the charge of the compound itself, which is zero. It's a charge lis neutral molecule that we're looking at here. So we have one potassium. You don't know what Megan eases. What? They're what it's oxidation state is. And then we have four auctions which haven't ostentation State of negative, too. So if we were to solve. For this, we find that X is equivalent to positive seven. So we know that potassium has a charge of positive One manganese has a charge of positive seven, and then auction has a charge of negative too going on to be. We have a nickel and an auction that were wanting to find the oxidation states of We aren't sure you have no rule for a nickel, but for auction. We know auction exists in a state of negative too, just like we saw in a So in order to find where again considered equal to zero. Because this is a neutral. We have too negative too. And we don't know nickel yet, So we do this out. You find that X is woodland shoot caused it. Four. That makes sense. So we have the oxidation state of nickel plus four, and oxygen is negative, too. Going on to see we have quite a few elements and this problem so we have sodium, have four sodium iron, then we have oxygen in hydrogen. But we have six of each, so it's still a neutral atom. So we're gonna do zero in division from color. Since we're dealing with a lot now. So zero. But then, if we look at so sodium, we know based on where it is and the rules that we have lost a nation states positive one. We want to find iron auction, as we've talked about a couple times now. Negative two in hydrogen has a plus one state, so we're looking at four. So Diem's we don't know iron. Then we have six native to plus one. This is just auction, plus the hydrogen. And if solve for X, we find X is equivalent to positive to, which means we can say sodium. I earn auction in hydrogen plus one plus two minus two and plus one, respectively. I want to move down so you have more room. There's quite a few said. Next we're going to do d de we have. And you know h all that. We have two of them. They have another H phosphorous and then four Austin. So just like we saw above, it's still neutral. Phil zero. So then we can dio to times we need to go through here first and know that nitrogen has a charge of negative three hydrogen plus one another hydrogen plus one. We don't know. Phosphorous in auction minus two. So you got two types, Nate Three. We have eight hydration here. And then we have one more hydrogen here, and then we don't know the phosphorus, and then we have four auction. So that means that X four D is gonna be plus five. So that means our nitrogen is minus three hydrogen plus one phosphorous plus five in the auction, minus two. This is two. Didn't write that. There we go. So now we could go on to the next. This is definitely a longer problem. So for E, we have four phosphorus, a end, six oxygen. We know, auction to be *** to We want to find phosphorus. And we did find phosphorus in deep. You cannot use the same oxidation state because it's Quito. Differ, depending on the compound that it's part of. So we can again said it equal to zero. We have six auction and four false verse. So we find that X is equivalent to a positive three. And just so that we know Phosphorous. Pause of three and auction negative too. Going on to f. We have three iron and four oxygen. Native to and we want to know iron. So it's another neutral. Did you three x was four ox *** and we're gonna find for F X is equivalent to a positive 8/3, Which is you need, but not unheard off. Positive. Eight over three oxygen. Negative two. So, as we've seen through the so far, auction is obviously a very common element that you'll see a lot in compounds. Oops. Okay, They don't want to go up. See, next is G. Here we go. So when we're thinking about G, we want to dio following. So we're talking about flooring. It's one that we haven't talked about previously in previous problems yet because we keep seeing a lot of the same things repeated. But Florence has a known common oxidation state of negative one. We have talked about auction. We know it is negative two and then we're talking about Xena on gas. This is what we want to find. This is too. We don't know this. We want to find it so we can go ahead and no, this is a neutral and we're gonna dio just one auction four pouring and then we don't know Z known as a. They're oxidation state. So we Saul for this. For the auspicious date of zine on, we find that X is a positive six. So now we know the following and flooring is negative. We're getting closer to the end now. Thanks for bearing with me. I know this one's a little bit longer. We have a sulphur which we haven't seen yet and flooring again. So for flooring we know based on our rules and it's negative one. We want to find sulfur for this problem. So it is again a neutral Adam our compound, So we don't know sulfur. But we do know that we have four warring. We confined. That X is equivalent to a positive four, which means sulfur. It's plus floor and then flooring is a negative one. We can go onto I now. I is a small compound We know again Austin's returned. It's a native to carbon. No, no, we want to find So it is again a neutral Adam. We know we only have one oxygen. So X here is a with went to a positive too. So we know carbon has an oxidation state of plus two in oxygen minus two for curry monoxide. Then we're gonna go down a little bit more. And this is our last for J. Really? At C six each, 12 06 which is actually glucose. So we know for a fact auction off station, state of negative, too. Hydrogen plus one. And we want to know carbon. And even though we found it for carbon oxide and I, the oxidation state is not necessarily the same between compounds because it is an element that doesn't follow a specific rule, like we see with hydrogen and Austin here. So it's again a neutral compound. We have six that we don't know carbon. And then we have 12 hydrogen and six auctions solving. For this, we find that X is a prevalent to zero. So carbon actually equal zero hydrogen has Australia, state of Paul's one and then auction. It's zero has a oxidation state of natives to, and that's it for this

So here we are continuing to assign oxidation states. So this is the piece of information that tells us whether an atom has lost or gained electrons when forming a bond. So if it has a positive oxidation state it means it's lost electrons. If it has a negative oxidation state it means it's gained electrons. So in this first example the oxidation state of oxygen is -2. The oxidation state of uranium is plus six. Next we've got oxygen again in the -2 and plus three. Following on from this, we've got sodium in the plus one. As always, oxygen in the minus two is always in business and the plus five. Next we have is zero because it's in its elemental state followed by hydrogen in the plus one, oxygen in the minus two And s in the plus three. Yeah, mm Following on from this, we've got magnesium and the plus two oxygen in the minus two And phosphorus in the plus five. three more examples and where sodium is n. d. plus one oxygen is in the minus two And sulfur is in the plus three. Second to last, we've got mercury in the plus one And Chlorine in the -1 Oxidation State. Lastly, we've got calcium group to meddle in the mind in the positive to oxidation state, oxygen is in the minus two. That leaves us with nitrogen in the plus five oxidation states

Chapter six Question 82 asks us to assign oxidation states over all of these molecules. So to do this, let's keep a couple rules in mind. First, the oxidation state some for the entire molecule must add up to the charge of the molecule. Since most molecules are neutral or have no charge, the some will be zero. However, here in the case of a, we do have a charge, so we'll keep that in mind. Second, there are a couple of atoms that always have the same oxidation states. For example, oxygen will always be negative. Two and hydrogen will always be positive one. Typically, Adams will have oxidation states that are equivalent to the atoms common charge. However, for most metals or metal, Lloyds will have to determine the oxidation state in the particular molecule, as there isn't a common trapped with these ideas in mind, let's start with a We have 02 and remember that Oh will always have an oxidation state of negative, too, because we have two of them. This gets us an oxidation state For all of the oxygen's of negative four, we need the entire molecule toe. Have a net charge of positive, too. That means you must have a charge of plus six. Let's move on to be once again, we have oxygen, which is always a charge of negative, too. We have three of them, so that gives us a net charge for all oxygen's of negative six. We have to s autumns, so each of those must have a charge of plus three. When writing thes out, please note that the oxidation numbers will go on top of the molecule, while any work you right out, we'll go below the molecule. Next. Let's look at sea. Once again, we have oxygen, each of which is the charge of negative to giving us a charge of negative six for all of the oxygen's sodium is in the first call of the periodic table, meaning that it will always have a charge of plus one. Therefore be I must have a charge of plus five to give us a net neutral molecule. De points out an important concept here. If we have a single Adam composing the entire molecule, it must have an oxidation state of zero. This will also apply to molecules like co two H two etcetera for e Once again, we have oxygen which is has a charge of negative too. That gives us negative four. For all the oxygen molecules, H always has a charge of plus one meaning that s most of a charge of plus three. F once again has oxygen of negative to giving us negative 14 For all of the oxygen, magnesium is in the second call of the periodic table meeting. It always is the charge of plus two giving us plus four For all of the magnesium, we have to account for another plus 10 of charge for the two potassium. So each of these has a charge of plus five moving on to G. Once again, we have oxygen of negative to giving us negative six and A is in the first called with the periodic table. So each has a plus one charge giving us plus two. We have a we have to account for negative four in these two molecules, so each of them will have a charge of negative too. Finally, looking at H c. L always has a charge of negative one giving us negative too. Therefore, HD must have a charge of plus one


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