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Answers

Amplifying DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technique that allows scientists to take tiny samples of DNA and amplify them into large samples that can then be examined to determine the DNA sequence. (This is useful, for example, in forensic science.) The process works by mixing the sample with appropriate enzymes and then heating it until the DNA double helix separates into two individual strands. The enzymes then copy each strand, and once the sample is cooled the number of DNA molecules will have doubled. By repeatedly performing this heating and cooling process, the number of DNA molecules continues to double every temperature cycle (referred to as a PCR cycle).
(a) Suppose a sample containg $x$ molecules is collected from a crime scene and is amplified by PCR. Express the number of DNA molecules as a function of the number $n$ of $\mathrm{PCR}$ cycles.
(b) There is a detection threshold of $T$ molecules below which no DNA can be seen. Derive an equation for the number of PCR cycles it will take for the DNA sample to reach the detection threshold.
(c) One way scientists determine the abundance of different DNA molecules in a sample is by measuring the difference in time it takes to reach the detection threshold for each. Sketch a graph of the number of cycles needed to reach the detection threshold as a function of the initial number of molecules. Comment on the relationship between differences in initial number of molecules and differences in the time to reach the detection threshold.

Chinese solution when directed with stool and avoided give some right sector own additional access this compound. So could you inform general which hard place here's the correct terms.

Explanation for the question here. Answer for party. Yeah. The locus. Yes. Hamas, I guess. Right? Only one big build up your Yeah, I answer for what we suspect. Three. So here, comparing Mhm the specimen. Right space, Eamon. Blood stand. All right. And of the no suspect tree, the elites and height all week are the same. Yeah, and answer for Parsi. It will be difficult. 200 person. Sure, if only when locus is used and usage of three lucky eliminates the concept of chance being the result of being pointing. Suspect tree the tree. Look. I made sure they damage between the sample and suspect. Torri is to make sure no other suspect makes the same simple. So here in past day, Big height. Those in red are lower. Mm. And suspect mhm then in suspect. For that And the gates, less DNA was taken from suspect one. Four p. C. R. And vilification

For this question. What we have is we've taken a single DNA strand and of course, we have multiple copies of it, and we've broken it down into sort of randomized fragments between each of our different strands. So here we have six different strands each which could make up a singular section of it original DNA strand. So where I like to start from this is to start from a small strand where we can easily relate it to others. So if we look for very significant or unique feature in this first strand, we can see that there are three A's in a row. So if we find three days in a row in one of our other sequences, it's likely that would be a similar or contain this whole sequence as part of that strength. So at number two, you can see we have these three A's, and if you travel your way back, you can see that this fragment portion is similar to this strand. So here we just have this strand located right here in fragment number two. So from there we have the rest of the original DNA sequence, so we just need to look to make sure we don't have any additional DNA nucleotides on either the five prime or three prime ends of the strands. So again, if we look for the Triple A, we can see that we still have this see from the original first Strand, and we're going to have the rest of Fragment three able to be found in fragment, too. That fragment. For if we look through here, we can see that there are no Triple A's. However, you can see that there's a triple C here, which is pretty unique, which relates to the triple C found in Strand two. So here, fragment for is just this beginning portion of fragment and Strand two. So we can't grab any nucleotides from either three or four as long as we make sure to include that C from Fragment one. If we move on to five, we can see the Triple A at the very end, and it's going to continue on the five prime end until it reaches this similar strand at the beginning of Strand tube. So we don't have any new nucleotides from five either. However, if we look at six, we can see there are very different unique features here. There's a triple T, which is not found in any of the other strands. So we need to find where this strand is located in Strand number two, which contains the majority of our d N A sequence. So if we look at the very end of Strand six, we see this G c a a t. But you'll also find at the very beginning of Strand number two so you'll see this G c a a t. So here's Strand six is the nucleotides that are going to be found before strand number two. So here we just need to include this new portion of nucleotides two Strand number two, and we have our whole DNA sequence. So if we combine all those strands together and their correct sequencing of one another, we're going to get our final strand or a continuous strand of a T T. T, which you'll find in Strand number six and then you can write in strain number two a. C C T C A T a C C C T A g to t A. And then you just have to include the final see nucleotide that you can find in strand number one or some of the other strands. So here this would be the nucleotide sequence for the full strand that each of these fragments originated from, and that should complete the question.


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