So in this question, um, were asked to compare mitochondria and chloroplasts and I have a diagram of mitochondria on the left and the diagram of Corp last on the right and were asked how how the hydrogen ion ingredient that builds up in the mitochondria, um, could be less than than the hydrogen ion ingredient that can build up in the thyroid quite space within a chloroplast. So, first of all, let's review what happens here in the mitochondria in the mitochondria. The This is the outer membranes. Mitochondria have to, um, too hungry. And this is the inner membrane, and the space in between is called the inter membrane space. And on this inner membrane, um, are the proteins that are part of the electron transport chain as well as a T piece in face. They are embedded in that inner membrane. And what happens is electrons go through that electron transport chain and hydrogen ions from within the matrix of the mitochondria. So this larger space inside the mitochondria, um, get moved, uh, or pumped through the electron transport chain, um, into the inner membrane space. This is really important because, uh, the election transport chain actually builds up Ah, high hydrogen ion, um, concentration. And so we build up, Ah, high electrochemical ingredient within these this inter membrane space, um, of the mitochondria. And then those hydrogen ions actually moved back into the matrix through at peace in phase and they produce ATP. So that's what happens. Um, for the mitochondria, what happens in the, um in the core plus with a core plus also has an outer membrane and an inner membrane. So there it is, the double membranes. It also has an inter membrane space, right. And then there's a third system of membrane in the chloroplast, and that's called the silo coy that these air the final coy's and it is in the membranes of the final coid, actually, that you have the photo systems and you have a teepee sim fix. And what happens is they're actually, um they pump hydrogen ions from this trauma. This not area here is this drama, and it is analogous to the matrix of the mitochondria. So hydrogen ions are pumped from the Stroh MMA, um, into the file a coid space. And so ah, high hydrogen ion ingredient was actually built up inside the silo coy space and the silo coId space, um, actually is a network of membranes that's all connected and sealed all within itself. And so this actually allows for high hydrogen ion concentration so that hydrogen I am can go down the ingredient and produce a teepee, um, for carbon fixation that happens inside this drama. The OTP is necessary for that carbon fixations that produces the sugars in the organic compounds. So now let's get back to our question. The question is, why can silent coId? Why does the hydrogen ion ingredient inside? If I liquid system, why it Can it get much higher than the hydrogen ion ingredient that happens inside the Internet grade space off the mitochondria? Well, um, it's really quite simple in between the inter membrane space. All right surrounding the outer membrane of the, uh, mitochondria is just normal cytoplasm. This is the cytoplasm of the south, and it also contains hydrogen ions, um, in it. And these hydrogen ions can actually go into the outer, um in through the outer membrane of the mitochondria. Or they can come or hydrogen ions can actually come out of the, um, that mitochondrial membrane, the outer mitochondrial membrane and not in large quantities. Um, but this is how hydrogen ions are able to get into the mitochondria to begin with. I mean, some of these hydrogen ions will be made from water and whatnot, but, um, you know, this membrane is actually permeable toe hydrogen ions to a certain degree. And so because of that, this I, ah, ingredient is always going to be susceptible. Um, Thio ions moving in and out into the cytoplasm. So the mitochondria let's write this down. Mhm. Let's write down that the hydrogen ions can move in and out through the outer one brain. And so the hydrogen ion radiant is not ever going to get quite as high as what can build up within the Bible. CoId because in the silo coid the hydrogen ions don't, um, they don't transfer uh into the cytoplasm of the cell. There isn't this this transfer between the cytoplasm of the cell and in remembering space? And so the hydrogen ion concentration can get much lower in this drama, and all of the hydrogen ions that come out can be regulated via the ATP synthesis, uh, and and pumping hydrogen ions in. And so this extra layer. Um, the outer membrane and the inner membrane both protect that hydrogen ion ingredient that conform within the cyber points. So let's write this down the dinner and outer, Uh mm breeze can the tips the Asian Chi'en formed in the hi lift would Okay, so another way to say that is in, um is that for the mitochondria, the hydrogen ion, greedy in, is sort of regulated via the outer membrane of the mitochondria and the cytoplasm. And in the chloroplast, the hydrogen ion ingredient is regulated through the silo coid and this troma of the cell and the concentration of hydrogen items in this trauma of the chloroplast. Sorry. The chloroplast, um, is protected by the inner and the outer member, so I hope that help.