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Why do the mitochondria of metabolically active tissues (such as skeletal muscle when someone is exercising) tend to contain more cristae than the mitochondrial of ...

Question

Why do the mitochondria of metabolically active tissues (such as skeletal muscle when someone is exercising) tend to contain more cristae than the mitochondrial of other tissues? Why do cells need to regenerate NAD+ following glycolysis? Hypothesize why; based on their functions, the mitochondrion has two membranes, whereas the chloroplast has three. What's the difference between an anaerobic organism and an anoxygenic one? Do erythrocytes create ATP through fermentation or oxidative phosph

Why do the mitochondria of metabolically active tissues (such as skeletal muscle when someone is exercising) tend to contain more cristae than the mitochondrial of other tissues? Why do cells need to regenerate NAD+ following glycolysis? Hypothesize why; based on their functions, the mitochondrion has two membranes, whereas the chloroplast has three. What's the difference between an anaerobic organism and an anoxygenic one? Do erythrocytes create ATP through fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation? Why do you think this? What is the equation for photosynthesis? At what part of photosynthesis are each of the substrates consumed and each of the products made? Know how to read light absorption spectra: What colors are absorbed best by chlorophyll? Know the different components of a photosystem complex, and how they function together to absorb and transfer light energy: Be able to follow the flows of electrons from Hz0 to PSII to PSI to Calvin Cycle:



Answers

Role of Lactate Dehydrogenase During strenuous activity, the demand for ATP in muscle tissue is vastly increased. In rabbit leg muscle or turkey flight muscle, the ATP is produced almost exclusively by lactic acid fermentation. ATP is formed in the payoff phase of glycolysis by two reactions, promoted by phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. Suppose skeletal muscle were devoid of lactate dehydrogenase. Could it carry out strenuous physical activity; that is, could it generate ATP at a high rate by glycolysis? Explain.

Okay, The explanation of the soldiers and instead that force for bless rate, Manassas. Catalyze this formation off 3/4 for glass red, three pz and 80 p from ADP and 13 this force for Blake. Great This post populist rate. No Peru Bait Genesis Catalysis conversion off forceful fennel fire Wait p e p to pirouette and conversion off a d p ls P I to 80 p in absence off elected D hydrogen It's lactic acid. Fermentation cannot be carried out. Hands ST notes. Physical activity, including generation 80 p at a high rate. Can Toby get read out as dry causes gives Onley net again? Net gain off to 80 piece So this is the explanation as

So in this question, um, were asked to compare mitochondria and chloroplasts and I have a diagram of mitochondria on the left and the diagram of Corp last on the right and were asked how how the hydrogen ion ingredient that builds up in the mitochondria, um, could be less than than the hydrogen ion ingredient that can build up in the thyroid quite space within a chloroplast. So, first of all, let's review what happens here in the mitochondria in the mitochondria. The This is the outer membranes. Mitochondria have to, um, too hungry. And this is the inner membrane, and the space in between is called the inter membrane space. And on this inner membrane, um, are the proteins that are part of the electron transport chain as well as a T piece in face. They are embedded in that inner membrane. And what happens is electrons go through that electron transport chain and hydrogen ions from within the matrix of the mitochondria. So this larger space inside the mitochondria, um, get moved, uh, or pumped through the electron transport chain, um, into the inner membrane space. This is really important because, uh, the election transport chain actually builds up Ah, high hydrogen ion, um, concentration. And so we build up, Ah, high electrochemical ingredient within these this inter membrane space, um, of the mitochondria. And then those hydrogen ions actually moved back into the matrix through at peace in phase and they produce ATP. So that's what happens. Um, for the mitochondria, what happens in the, um in the core plus with a core plus also has an outer membrane and an inner membrane. So there it is, the double membranes. It also has an inter membrane space, right. And then there's a third system of membrane in the chloroplast, and that's called the silo coy that these air the final coy's and it is in the membranes of the final coid, actually, that you have the photo systems and you have a teepee sim fix. And what happens is they're actually, um they pump hydrogen ions from this trauma. This not area here is this drama, and it is analogous to the matrix of the mitochondria. So hydrogen ions are pumped from the Stroh MMA, um, into the file a coid space. And so ah, high hydrogen ion ingredient was actually built up inside the silo coy space and the silo coId space, um, actually is a network of membranes that's all connected and sealed all within itself. And so this actually allows for high hydrogen ion concentration so that hydrogen I am can go down the ingredient and produce a teepee, um, for carbon fixation that happens inside this drama. The OTP is necessary for that carbon fixations that produces the sugars in the organic compounds. So now let's get back to our question. The question is, why can silent coId? Why does the hydrogen ion ingredient inside? If I liquid system, why it Can it get much higher than the hydrogen ion ingredient that happens inside the Internet grade space off the mitochondria? Well, um, it's really quite simple in between the inter membrane space. All right surrounding the outer membrane of the, uh, mitochondria is just normal cytoplasm. This is the cytoplasm of the south, and it also contains hydrogen ions, um, in it. And these hydrogen ions can actually go into the outer, um in through the outer membrane of the mitochondria. Or they can come or hydrogen ions can actually come out of the, um, that mitochondrial membrane, the outer mitochondrial membrane and not in large quantities. Um, but this is how hydrogen ions are able to get into the mitochondria to begin with. I mean, some of these hydrogen ions will be made from water and whatnot, but, um, you know, this membrane is actually permeable toe hydrogen ions to a certain degree. And so because of that, this I, ah, ingredient is always going to be susceptible. Um, Thio ions moving in and out into the cytoplasm. So the mitochondria let's write this down. Mhm. Let's write down that the hydrogen ions can move in and out through the outer one brain. And so the hydrogen ion radiant is not ever going to get quite as high as what can build up within the Bible. CoId because in the silo coid the hydrogen ions don't, um, they don't transfer uh into the cytoplasm of the cell. There isn't this this transfer between the cytoplasm of the cell and in remembering space? And so the hydrogen ion concentration can get much lower in this drama, and all of the hydrogen ions that come out can be regulated via the ATP synthesis, uh, and and pumping hydrogen ions in. And so this extra layer. Um, the outer membrane and the inner membrane both protect that hydrogen ion ingredient that conform within the cyber points. So let's write this down the dinner and outer, Uh mm breeze can the tips the Asian Chi'en formed in the hi lift would Okay, so another way to say that is in, um is that for the mitochondria, the hydrogen ion, greedy in, is sort of regulated via the outer membrane of the mitochondria and the cytoplasm. And in the chloroplast, the hydrogen ion ingredient is regulated through the silo coid and this troma of the cell and the concentration of hydrogen items in this trauma of the chloroplast. Sorry. The chloroplast, um, is protected by the inner and the outer member, so I hope that help.

Okay. In response to this question is talk about the 80P synthesis. We are all creative formulation. Remember that and this is going to be mitochondria, this is going to be the outer mitochondrial membrane it's going to be that even might open remembering and this is this space here is going to be the metric automatics and she's basically it's going to be remembered of the space. Okay. You have the electron transport chain here that is made of four complexes and also in a different thing. Dangerous border. Okay, so during metabolism you're going to produce any molecules favorites too that are electron transporters or electron covers in 88 is going to unload and it's just a complex number one and then radiates to it will do the same in complex number two. Okay, once they unload their electrons and it is going to flow to complex number three and then to compress number forward, they are going to we act with with oxygen in order to produce quarter. Okay. The purpose of this is to to bump protests, fundamental mathematics to internet marketplace by creating a gradient here. It means you're going to have high levels of proteins in the terminal space and low amounts of proteins in the matrix. So because of gradients, protons are going to move or are going to want to move back to the matrix because of gradients. Okay, But this intermittent remembering here is impermeable is not permissible to protons. So the only way by which these protests can come back to the matters as they want is by this 80% is okay These 8% days he's going to transport proteins back up and when it does that it is going to put formulate maybe molecule producing 80 ft. Okay, so this is how a meta collaboration said the white house is give a brief explanation of each other. Question aid. Question is what would be the effect only DP production of adding a substance that makes the mitochondrial membrane proteins. Okay, practically it says that this mitochondria mitochondria memory is going to link it to proteins. Okay, so remember after we pump proteins here, they are not going that they should not Be able to come back to the matrix. Okay, because they should use the different centers in order to come back in order for these 80% is to produce a T. P. Okay, but as you are making a lot as you are adding a product for that is making this medical membrane lickety protons. Then this when you create a great in here these proteins are going to move back to the mitochondria mattress without well, particularly using Okay. And they are not going to need anymore. This 80% is and as this attribution theses was a responsible proposals. ADP then we're going to have Very low 80 p limits. Okay, because this inter medical membrane now permeable to proteins and they are not going to require the 80% anymore. So it depends what to be Hello, question B question business. But it would be the effect on the ph of the mitochondrial matrix of we're using the oxygen supply. Okay, remember that in order for this electron transport Tokyo you need oxygen here in complex number four. Okay, if there is no oxygen then all of this is going to stop. Okay, it's going to be inhibited and then protests and protests are not going to move to the international space. So products are going to be main cinematics and we're going to have high levels of protests here and remember that high levels of products leads to low gauge. So particularly the the ph of the mitochondria. Matics is going to videos means is going to be on arctic questions it says supposed to global supply to the side is greatly reduced. What will be the effect on carbon dioxide production by the mitochondria? Well, if the if the if the global supplies or to the cell is greatly reduced, then the carbon dioxide levels produced by the by the cell is going to be reduced to reduced but not like not produced and why? Because well look, cause it's going to be metabolized by the process of like policies to produce to pirouette molecules. Okay, fire away here in Cairo wait here then this part of it is going to enter my talk on their missile silos and once inside me to commit to contract is going to convert into hospital coil by means of the enzyme fire away the hydrogen complex. Okay, and during this reaction that is called pyrite oxidation. There is production of one carbon dioxide here and one carbon dioxide talk here after this each other, the HSS molecule is going to enter the Krebs cycle. And in during each cycle of the Krebs cycle there's going to be promotion of and when they also here, when you sit here. Okay, so the same here to carbon docs. Okay, this is that like the complete breakdown of glucose molecules. But however, we also have very acid for example, fatty acids are going to develop better oxidation, undertook without sedation relaxation. Going to produce at A D H F A B H two means in Calgary. I said I'll go is going to and the cramp cycle in order to produce more carbon dioxide also ADP and on the th with F a B H two. So the question says uh supported that local supplies was absolutely great news. Okay, what will be the effect on carbon dioxide production by the mitochondria? Well, if glucose legacies were used then uh then there is not going to be their cycle at least from glucose. Okay, or the levels of Krebs cycle or car cycle is not going to cure like in like too much. Okay, so there is going to be decrease carbon dioxide levels here and also here in parliament oxidation. However fatty acids are going to be normal. So they are going to and record the process of negotiation and produce as a way that is going to undergo cruel cycle. And this is going to be more carbon dioxide pollution. Okay, so particularly the levels of glucose levels of carbon dioxide levels are going to be decreased. But yeah, it is going to be it's going to be produced by curiosity. And so, and also for from some glucose molecules that are still because the question says that, uh, that the glucose supply is reduced, but it is not absent. Okay, so this is the answer for your question.

Okay. In response to this question, let's talk about the positive correlation process started closing by Towanda. This is the this is going to be the outer mitochondrial membrane and this is going to be the Internet. A fundamental Okay. The other contracting chain is found here and the enemy remembering because four complexes and was transported here. What is called the 80 piece entries. Okay, so we have an 80 age in a video is too that they are that they transport electrons. Okay, this is a mitochondrial matrix and stay. Remember that was a space. So once these electron reporters get to meet a condom, they are going to unload electrons to this. A little approaching and electricity is the flow from one complex to another. And the purpose of this is to pump protons votomatics to the international space. Okay, we're going to pump protons and we're going to create a high levels of protein here and low levels of proteins here. So, because of gradients, protons are going to are going to want to move back to the matrix. But the problem is that this intimated by the Kernel memory is not permissible to products. So they are only a way by which they can come back to the matrix. It's by this 80 piece in face. And when they do this, 80% age is going to force correlate one ADP molecules introduced. Hate to be okay. So this is this is how the selected reporters produce a T. P through this mechanism of of the latin trapper chain. So the question says, give a brief a brief explanation of each answer a question. A says What will be the effect of 80p product production of adding a substance that makes the mitochondrial membrane dedicated proteins. So if this inner membrane is not, is not working in this league, two protons then all this gradient of proteins here are going to move back To the metal problematic without using the TTP saying that they're going they're not going to require this and everything more because they can diffuse passively back to their buttons. Okay, so this is as these products are not going to use this 80 piece in place, then there is going to be security resiliency of ADP. Okay, so this is what what is going to happen if there is? If this might O'connell membrane conflict into protests. So question me, question business, What would be the effect of on the ph of the mitochondrial matrix of reducing the oxygen supply? Remember that in complex number four we have oxygen. Okay, oxygen is the final electron sector. It means it is going to to accept the electron for in every age of these two. Uh, what is this going to cost the movement of protest to the international space? But what happens when there is no oxygen here? Well, if there is no oxygen here, these are not going to be able to react with oxygen. And they are going to communicate here here here here. Like they are going to connect backwards. Okay, so as they are, they they are accumulating backwards. This elegant diaper change is not going to work and hence there is no there is not going to do leak movement of proteins to enter members and pigs. So they were going to be a high level of proteins here. Okay, because they are going to be retained here and they are not going to be able to move to internet business space. So there is going to be high levels of problems in the matrix. It is going to lead to decrease ph so that ph is going to decrease in the mitochondrial matrix when uh they have reduced oxygen supply question C suppose that the glucose supply to the cell is greatly reduced. So remember that the process of like a weakness it starts with a group of molecules and it produces so part of it molecules. Then each part of it is going to be converted to acetyl coa way and each one is going to enter the Krebs cycle. Okay, in the cycle there's going to be production of one and two carbon dioxides per cycle. Okay, so here you're going to have also To carbon dioxide molecules and also during pyrite oxidation. That means this process here. This is going to be one approach. 1. 1 carbon dioxide molecule. Okay, So also remember that this is about carbohydrates. Okay. But we also have fairy assets and when they are broken down they produce high levels of as a take away and they come in terms of the Krebs cycle. Okay, so if we have low levels or we lose levels of glucose, then there is going to this process here is going to be produced in one of the Krebs cycle is going to be reduced in carbon dioxide molecules. That is going to the kid. It's pretty awesome. Okay, so this is going to be the answer for your question. Remember that Krebs cycle in Pirated oxidation want to see mitochondria? Okay?


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