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9512/takeQuestion 1Which substance has the highest boiling point? Why a.CH4 b CH3CH3 C. CH:CH2CH3 d. CH:CH2CH2CH3Hint: They are all nonpolar:B I 4 A - A - I = 3...

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9512/takeQuestion 1Which substance has the highest boiling point? Why a.CH4 b CH3CH3 C. CH:CH2CH3 d. CH:CH2CH2CH3Hint: They are all nonpolar:B I 4 A - A - I = 3

9512/take Question 1 Which substance has the highest boiling point? Why a.CH4 b CH3CH3 C. CH:CH2CH3 d. CH:CH2CH2CH3 Hint: They are all nonpolar: B I 4 A - A - I = 3



Answers

Which substance has the lowest boiling point? Why? Hint: They are all nonpolar. (a) $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CH}_{3}$ (b) $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CHCl}_{2}$ (c) $\mathrm{CHCl}_{2} \mathrm{CHCl}_{2}$ (d) $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CCl}_{3}$

Explanation for the question. All the molecules given are non polar and hence Onley dispersion. Forces exist in that. So to find which compound has high dispersion forces, we can depend on multiple er waits off compounds. The compound, which is high molecular weight, is high dispersion force and hence higher boiling point. So among the Cuban compounds option d his Hi you molecular weight hands option the East correct.

In each part of this problem were given three different molecules and we want to determine which one out of these three best meets the given criterion and each part of the problem. So starting in part A, we are given three molecules and we want to determine which one of these has the highest boiling point. For each part of this problem. We need to compare the the relative strengths of the Inter Molecular Forces President in each one of the given molecules in order to help us determine this. So, for a boiling point, we know that stronger inter molecular forces will require a higher boiling point. And this is because more energy is required and therefore a higher temperature in order to overcome stronger inter molecular forces. So if we compare the three compounds given in part A, we see that they're all non polar and they all differ by the Adam before of the same Adam that are bonded to the carbon atom. If we look at the periodic table, we see that rooming compared to chlorine and flooring has a higher Moeller Mass and so therefore CBR for is the largest molecule out of these three, which leads to the highest polarize ability. So even though all of these display London dispersion forces, we can conclude that CBR four has the strongest enter molecular forces out of these three and therefore the highest boiling point in part B. We want to know which one of the three molecules has the lowest freezing point. When we free something, we're going from a liquid to a solid. And as we continue to decrease the temperature, the movement of the molecules also slows down as well. And when we when we slow down the those particles, we know that they hack together more tightly and resemble a solid. And so therefore, substances with higher inter molecular forces will resemble a solid more so than than those with lower inter molecular forces. And so that means that we're looking for the substance with the smallest inter molecular force to correspond to the lowest freezing point. We know that L I f is an ionic compound, so that is the strongest type of inter molecular force. And HCL is a polar molecule that displays dipole interactions. However, F two is a dye atomic and therefore non polar, and it only displays London dispersion forces, which are the weakest types of inter molecular forces. So therefore, since F two has a weakest internally molecular forces has the lowest freezing point out of these three part C. We want to know which one of these has the lowest vapor pressure. At 25 degrees Celsius. We remember what vapor pressure is if we have a liquid, and that liquid vapour rises into a guess than that gas exerts a pressure on the inner walls of that container. So we're at the same temperature for three different molecules. Then, if if these molecules have differences in boiling points than the one with the highest boiling point, will not have a Zeman vapor in the air because this is a constant temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. So if we have a molecule with the lowest boiling point at that constant temperature, then 25 degrees Celsius would be closest to that lowest boiling point. And it would have the most vapour particles in the air and therefore the greatest vapor pressure, so vapor pressure decreases as boiling point increases. So we really want to determine which one of these three has the highest boiling point, which means the strongest enter molecular forces ch 30 ch three is a polar molecule and ch three ch 20 h has hydrogen bonding. Therefore making it have stronger inter molecular forces than ch 30 ch three and ch three ch two ch three is non polar, so it has the weakest inter molecular forces of London dispersion. So because of the hydrogen bonding in this molecule, it has the highest boiling boiling point. Therefore, the lowest favor pressure or d we want to know which one These has the greatest viscosity. Viscosity is a resistance to flow. So we're looking for molecules with the strongest inter molecular forces. H two s is a polar molecule and HF is a polar molecule of that exhibits hydrogen bonding and H 202 is also a polar molecule. It exhibits hydrogen bonding so H F and H 202 since they both have hydrogen bonding, have stronger intra molecular forces in h two n. H two s and now we can compare those two based on their relative hydrogen bonding strengths. We see that h 202 has a greater inter molecular force from those hydrogen bonds because the presence of two oxygen atoms makes it more available for more hydrogen bonding for adjacent surrounding molecules. So that is why the hydrogen bonding for H 202 means that it is the greatest inter molecular force present out of these three Bala cules and therefore has the highest viscosity report you. We want to know which one of these has the greatest heat of vaporization and so that means which one of these requires the most energy and order to to convert from a liquid to a vapor. And so that means which one of these has the strongest enter molecular forces and when we look at ch three, ch three and CH four, those air both non polar hydrocarbons, so those both have the weakest type of inter molecular forces of London dispersion H two C e O. On the other hand, is a polar molecule which exhibits die poll interactions and therefore will have the strongest inter molecular forces and therefore the greatest heat of vaporization. Finally, in part F, we want to determine which one of these has the lowest heat of fusion. The heat of fusion corresponds to the amount of energy that is required to convert a substance from a solid to a liquid. So we really want to know which one of these melts at the lowest temperature has. The lowest melting point is the easiest to convert from a solid to a liquid. Well, if we look, we can see that CSB are and CEO are both Ionic compounds and so, therefore, those have much greater inter molecular forces since Ionic forces are the strongest out of all types of inter molecular forces, compared to the diatonic I to which is a non polar that displays only London dispersion forces. So we know that I two has the weakest inter molecular forces out of these three, and that means that there is not a lot of energy required to convert it from a solid to a liquid. And so it's Delta H of fusion will be the smallest out

So, for part a, the correct enter is CBR four, as has the highest intra molecular forces because it has the highest dispersion, which is all they all, what they all have. So for part B, it's F, too, because it has the weakest intra molecular forces, which is dispersion in this case for parts season cat. It is ethanol or ch three c h 20 H. Because as the highest inter molecular forces, which are hydrogen bonds four Part D. As in dog, you have hydrogen peroxide or H 202 as it has the highest inter molecular force. Out of all the molecules present for part E. As an Edward, you have h two c o as it has the highest inter molecular force out of all the molecules present. And then for part f, you have I to, as has the lowest intra molecular force out of all the molecules present

Okay, I want to remember which one has the highest boiling point. And we're giving these compounds to compound A. Is a two carbon al to hide, which is going to be ethanol with a lending the F 18 R. The F. For two carbons. The A. L. Ending implying without a hood and then compound B. Is um A two carbon alcohol. We're gonna be ethanol with an L. And Ol ending X one is a three carbonell kind. There's going to be per bine the iron ending for the icon. Sure, for D. Is an ester which is a ceo to see you to our bond. Okay, so there's a few things that affect the boiling point. one is a type of bonding. The most reports of a bombing which can lead the highest boiling point is ionic. And this is just the transfer of restaurants between a metal and nonmetal. Next one is hydrogen bonding. This is followed by a polar equivalent bond or diaper diaper interactions And the last one is London dispersion forces or LFF. Next point is branching. I mean the number of carbon atoms or the length of the chain. So if we have more carbon atoms, it's gonna increase the boiling point because we're gonna have more, we have a larger surface area and also more interaction between the neighboring atoms. So this is going to increase the surface area. 3rd point is branching And even though it's 1, 2, 3 Um one point isn't more isn't higher than the others. So the length of the chain isn't higher than branching but if branching does occur, it's going to lower the boiling point because we have less surface area and therefore less interaction between the atoms. So looking at these um in the first one we have, well the alcohol is going to have the highest boiling point because you have hydrogen bonding between the oxygen and hydrogen, the alcohol. This will be number one. And um we know that C. Is going to be the lowest because we just have non polar bonds, which is London dispersion forces. That's gonna be four. But d is going to have the second highest boiling point because we have more polar equivalent bonds between the carbon and the auction, the cartoon, but also the oxygen of the ether ever with the alcohol on the left. For a it's just the polar equivalent bond between the carbon and the oxygen of the cartoon. Therefore there's gonna be two and It's gonna make this three.


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