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Based on the forces? following [nlormaLion; which compuund Substunce Argon (Ar) bHvap" (Ulmoll) Renene (C6r6} Ethanol (CzHsOH) 31.0 Watet (H2o) 39.3 Metnane (C...

Question

Based on the forces? following [nlormaLion; which compuund Substunce Argon (Ar) bHvap" (Ulmoll) Renene (C6r6} Ethanol (CzHsOH) 31.0 Watet (H2o) 39.3 Metnane (CHA) 40.8 Argon Benzene Ethanol D) Water Methanewonzes{ intcrinolecularLarge / intermolecular Al low vapor Jorces Quottance pressure are manifested by 8) high bolling E point C) high heats of fusion D) high = and vaporization critical temperatures E) all of the above pressunes10) = general, the vapor pressure A) surface tension B) mole

Based on the forces? following [nlormaLion; which compuund Substunce Argon (Ar) bHvap" (Ulmoll) Renene (C6r6} Ethanol (CzHsOH) 31.0 Watet (H2o) 39.3 Metnane (CHA) 40.8 Argon Benzene Ethanol D) Water Methane wonzes{ intcrinolecular Large / intermolecular Al low vapor Jorces Quottance pressure are manifested by 8) high bolling E point C) high heats of fusion D) high = and vaporization critical temperatures E) all of the above pressunes 10) = general, the vapor pressure A) surface tension B) molecular weight hydrogen bonding viscosity E) temperature substance increases a5 increases 11) On phase diagram, the critical temperature A) the temperature belo* which = Bas cannot be liquefied 8) the temperature above which C) the gas cannot be liquefied temperature which all three states are equilibrium the temperature required to melt _ solid the temperature required to cause sublimation_ solid



Answers

Shown here is a curve of the distribution of kinetic energies of the molecules in a liquid at an arbitrary temperature $T$ The lines marked $\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{B},$ and $\mathrm{C}$ represent the point where each of the molecules for three different liquids (liquid A, liquid $\mathrm{B}$, and liquid $\mathrm{C}$ ) has the minimum kinetic energy to escape into the gas phase (see Figure 11.5 for more information). Write a brief explanation for each of your answers to the following questions. a Which of the molecules $-\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{B},$ or $\mathrm{C}$ - would have the majority of the molecules in the gas phase at temperature $T ?$ Which of the molecules $-\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{B},$ or $\mathrm{C}$ - has the strongest intermolecular attractions? c) Which of the molecules would have the lowest vapor pressure at temperature $T$ ?

Okay, so we're going to use this phase diagram to answer some questions. So we want to figure out where there's an equilibrium between the solid and vapor phase. Okay, so that's going to be on the line that is kind of curved going up to the triple point. So you can see that's going to be point A. And then that point G. The one that's way up top, that's where you have a supercritical liquid. Mm. And then we want to know if the boiling point increases as the pressure decreases. Well, I think the vapor pressure always increases as the pressure as the temperature increases. So this is a no. And then where can we find it? Only in the gas phase? Okay, so if we add to this picture, we want it to be somewhere over in here and we can see that that's going to be point after. And as a melting point increase as we increase the pressure. Well, that is true. If we if the line slants to the right and this line actually does slant to the right. So this is a yes. Mhm. Can we sublime at any pressure where we can sublime? We can go from a solid from a vapor at any pressure below the triple point. So that's going to be a no, you have to be below the triple point pressure to do that. Okay, and then since our line is slanting forward, that solid line there, that tells us that the density of the solid is larger than the density of the liquid. So the answer to this question is no

So we're really looking at the physical state for each of the following compounds at Certain temperature. So for water at -10. Mhm. So for water, the boiling point is 100°C.. And the um Melting Point is going to be 0°C.. So because it's below the melting point, it's going to be a solid. Yeah, and moving on um to be For water at 110°C.. So the boiling point for water is going to be 100°.. So that's gonna be a gas because it's going to have evaporated And for C for NH three at -100. Yeah. Mhm. Um So for any age three, the boiling point is going to be um negative 33°C And the melting point is going to be negative 77°C.. So that means that At negative 100 it's going to be a solid because it's gonna have frozen and be a solid. And so for any age three and -50. Um Because for NH three the boiling point is negative 33. It's not going to have reached that, so it's not going to boil, but it is going to be above the melting point. So that means that it's gonna be a liquid. Yeah. Um And so for ch cl three at 100 degrees C. Um So the boiling point for chloroform, which is CHCL three is 61° Celsius. So because it's above that um it is going to be a gas. Yeah. And for ch seal three at 50 because the um boiling point is 61 and the melting point is negative 63 because it's between those two numbers, it's going to be um a liquid.

Okay, Um, I stole this image from change, so I don't know where it came from, but anyway, we have Teoh answer four questions based on not all these just carbon die sulfide ethanol and obtain. Okay, Our first question IHS, what is the vapour pressure VP for ethanol Ethanol at 60 degrees C. So that one's pretty easy. We're gonna take ethanol to right here. And I would say that's about 360 millimeters of mercury. And I haven't looked at the one in your tax, so it might be slightly different. I've noticed that in the past, if I've used images from other sources, Okay, Second, looking at Onley, carbon die sulfide and ethanol, which of these two has the stronger, stronger enter molecular forces so stronger inter molecular forces will absolutely be ethanol. And it's got a lower vapor pressure all all throughout at every temperature. So what? Every point. It's got a lower vapor pressure. Third question is at what temperature does hep tain clips? At what temperature does hep teen have a vapor pressure of 500 mmh g So he obtained 500 mmh g is right here whips, So that looks like it to be about 85 degrees c. Make mine degrees so it doesn't look like a zero. They're 85 degrees seat. So there's our 1st 3 answers. I guess I've got five here on my next one is what is the approximately approximate, normal boiling points for each of these? I'm gonna erase this and let's go. So the normal boiling point for C And remember the normal boiling point will be at about 7 60 millimeters. Barrett Mercury's so right about there, there, there and there. So I might be a little high on those. I think you can see where I'm trying to get. So for CS two, I would say that my normal boiling point is about 46 degrees Celsius for my ethanol. I would say my normal boiling point is almost let me see almost eggs. 0 78 And for my hep tain, Um, I believe Oh my gosh, it's right about there. So it's really close to very, very close to 100. Just a smidge under 100. Okay, so our last question says at a pressure of 400 millimeters H g, um, this is my fourth question my fifth question at 400 mmh G. What is the state of each substance? So let me erase everything I've written up here and I'm going to draw a line at 400 and 400. Which state are each of these? At 400 degrees seat or excuse me at 400 mmh G. So this one is a little on this side. So this is the gas Ethanol at 400 h. G is on this site. So this is a gas and happening. Obtain is on this side. So this is a liquid. So for question number five, carbon diesel fight is a gas. Ethanol's a gas and helped Chane is a liquid.

Okay. So we've got our phase diagram for Oregon care Triple point is right there with the conditions they gave us are critical temperatures up here. Note that this is not to scale. Okay. That's way up at 48 atmospheres and put in one atmosphere so that we can use it to find our normal boiling point or freezing point if we need them. And we labeled are solids or liquids in our vapor. Okay, so in the first case, mhm We're starting at 500 of mercury and we're a solid. So we're somewhere in here and we're supposed to increase the temperature. So I think you can see that we're going to go from a solid to a vapor. Okay. And this proper this possible, Sorry, this process is called sublimation. So we say that it's sublime songs and then we're going to have a solid organ at two atmospheres. So we've got a solid and we're up here somewhere and we're going to increase the temperature. So initially are solid goes to a liquid. So we'll say that it melts if you want to keep going, our liquid were turned into a paper and you can say that it vaporizes or boils would be the term they've asked us to use. And then we're going to be negative 150 and we're going to be a gas. So we're somewhere in here somewhere. All right. And we're going to increase the pressure. So as we go up, we're going to go from a vapor to a liquid. So we say that it condenses, mm. It may eventually change your liquid into a solid, which would be freezes. But if you just look at the first thing to happen to have that there. Okay. And then finally, we're at negative 165 and the pressure is increased and where a gas. So, we're a gas about here and we're going to increase the pressure. So again, we're going to go from a vapor to a liquid, so we'll say it condenses, and again, it may continue depending on how much you increase it. They may then freeze, but that's your first process there.


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