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The image shows two different splicing pathways of _ primary RNA transcript in micePrimary RNA transcnptRNA splicingMRNA2 | 3ORmice altemative splicing occurs in th...

Question

The image shows two different splicing pathways of _ primary RNA transcript in micePrimary RNA transcnptRNA splicingMRNA2 | 3ORmice altemative splicing occurs in the Tcf7i2 gene, which encodes for T-cell factors and determines cells for which the factors are specified_ The two spliced mRNAs originate from the same primary RNA transcript and are transcribed from the same sequence of DNA Which of the following describes the outcome of the tWo spliced mRNAs?Since mutated exons were removed during s

The image shows two different splicing pathways of _ primary RNA transcript in mice Primary RNA transcnpt RNA splicing MRNA 2 | 3 OR mice altemative splicing occurs in the Tcf7i2 gene, which encodes for T-cell factors and determines cells for which the factors are specified_ The two spliced mRNAs originate from the same primary RNA transcript and are transcribed from the same sequence of DNA Which of the following describes the outcome of the tWo spliced mRNAs? Since mutated exons were removed during splicing, the ribosome will now translate tne 5" UTR and the 3' UTR t0 determine the specifications. Since two different introns were excised, the two mRNA molecules will most Iikely form different polypeptide chains resulting in factors that are specified Ior particular cell types: Since different portions of the DNA sequence were transcribed, only the " most benefidal mRNA will be translated Into polypeptide chain; and other factors will result from other genes_ Since the first and last sequence of the mRNA are the same in the two splices_ the twvo mRNA molecules will form the same polypeptide chains_ but the resulting protein will be speclfic to particular type of cell:



Answers

Below are several DNA sequences that are mutated compared with the wild-type sequence: $3^{\prime}-\mathrm{T} \mathrm{A} \mathrm{C} \mathrm{T} \mathrm{G} \mathrm{A}$ C T G A C G A T C-5'. Envision that each is a section of a DNA molecule that has separated in preparation for transcription, so you are only seeing the template strand. Construct the complementary DNA sequences (indicating 5' and 3' ends) for each mutated DNA sequence, then transcribe (indicating 5' and 3' ends) the template strands, and translate the mRNA molecules using the genetic code, recording the resulting amino acid sequence (indicating the $\mathrm{N}$ and C termini). What type of mutation is each? Mutated DNA Template Strand #1: 3'-T A C T G T C T G A C G A T C-5' Complementary DNA sequence:mRNA sequence transcribed from template:Amino acid sequence of peptide:Type of mutation: Mutated DNA Template Strand #2: 3'-T A C G G A C T G A C G A T C-5' Complementary DNA sequence: mRNA sequence transcribed from template: Amino acid sequence of peptide: Type of mutation: Mutated DNA Template Strand #3: 3'-T A C T G A C T G A C T A T C-5' Complementary DNA sequence: mRNA sequence transcribed from template: Amino acid sequence of peptide: Type of mutation: Mutated DNA Template Strand #4: 3'-T A C G A C T G A C T A T C-5' Complementary DNA sequence: mRNA sequence transcribed from template: Amino acid sequence of peptide: Type of mutation:

Hi welcome to another numerator video. The purpose of this video is to kind of give a visual representation of the processes of transcription and translation. Kind of help understand it a little bit better. It may sound like I'm kind of rambling but I am actually trying to answer some questions that come at the end of Chapter seven in the book. Biology concepts and investigations third edition. Um So that there there is uh in order to it if it hopefully it will it will appear that way transcription is the process of taking the D. N. A. A. Strand of DNA. And using it to build a strand of RNA trans translation. Then is the process of taking that RNA and using it to build a polyp peptide. And so in this picture the blue material is the DNA and the green material is the messenger RNA that we're that we're building from the D. N. A. Now i it's getting kind of messy so I won't draw it in. Didn't mean to do that. Um Yeah it's getting a little messy so I won't draw it in. But there would be a a molecule of RNA preliminary race involved in this. Now If on the DNA over to the left you see that's the three prime end and the right is a five prime end. So on the messenger RNA it's said to be anti parallel. So the right is going to be the three prime ends of the messenger RNA. And the The far left would be the five from in. And so it's the three prime end where the transcription is happening. And so this end down here is where the preliminary star in a preliminary race would be preliminary race. Anytime you hear that a sc ending, you know, you're talking about an enzyme polymer is as a molecule made of multiple parts, multiple sub units bonded together. And so RNA polymerase is an enzyme that is bonding the subunits of RNA together. It's building the RNA. So the art april and race would be working on that end. Now there are a couple of things we can tell from looking at this picture. The first is that transcription is happening along the DNA strand. So the DNA strand is opened up and it is create is using that to build a messenger RNA strand. And we could actually tell which bases are going to be um added next if we follow this sequence. So here we have guangming and the D. N. A. And that and that is going to pair with a side of scene. So on the RNA strand you're going to put aside a scene right here. Next is a dinning. And what would bind with at a mean is thing I mean, except I mean is not found in messenger RNA. RNA instead it's going to be you're a cell. And so then another year or so would go here then this thing I mean is going to pair up with anatomy. This side is seen is going to pair up with the guarani. This I've seen with the guarani. This thing I mean with an ataman adami this quantity with cida scene. So you can just go down the line here and know which bases are gonna come next and this stranded messenger already. So that is the idea of transcription that you've taken DNA and built RNA from it. Now if this were a eukaryotic cell, this strand of messenger RNA would have to leave the nucleus in order to go out and join with the river is home and to start translating that code into actual protein or poly peptide. This appears to be a pro carry attic sell because the translation process is happening basically at the same time as transcription. So transcription you were taking DNA and making messenger RNA translation. You're using the messenger RNA to build a polyp peptide in this picture there to polyp peptides being built And that's what's happening here with the red. The red represents transfer RNA. So the transfer RNA is going to bring a um an amino acid and hook up with the code on on the messenger RNA strand. And then the next piece of transfer RNA will hook up with the next coat on and as they do that will bring the amino acids close together and then they will form a bond. Obviously there are other enzymes involved with that. But then those so those amino acids will be bonded together, eventually forming a polyp peptide. So we see that this is happening simultaneously. We're wielding to polly peptides here, polly peptide B. And polly peptide A. So we could ask ourselves, you know, what's going to be the next amino acid that comes into the into the polyp peptide B. So we we see that glue scene has been added. Um The transfer RNA has what's called an anti code on that matches with a coat on Which is a three bay sequence on the messenger RNA. So if we look at the very next code on and our messenger RNA, it's A A. G. And that's going to require an anti code on uh uracil here is still side A scene. Or you you see and so we can ask what's going to be the next thing that bonds with this. You you see and I have a chart in the book where we can look that up. So we can look up at the code on A A. G. Which corresponds to the anti code on you. You see codes for the amino acid lysine. So the next amino acid here in this polytech Diaby is going to be lysine. Now, another thing that we can tell from this picture is that we're not seeing the entire sequence that this polyp peptide is going to form. Um if if we keep looking at these code ons here, G U C C U A G and so forth. We don't find the stop code on. Um the stop code ons are you A U A G and U G A. We're not finding that stop code on. And so we assume that this is not the complete um sequence of amino acids in this polyp peptide that it's going to continue building until it gets to a stop code on. Once it does get to a stop code on and the probably peptides are going to be released and they will probably then fold into a different configuration depending upon how long this polyp peptide is. It might be a complete protein by itself or it might then join with other polyp peptides to create a protein and then that protein will then carry out its function. So you can see so much going on in a picture like this. But just just review um transcription is taking the DNA code which we see in the blue down here in the bottom and using that to build a molecule of messenger RNA. Then translation is taking those code ons that are on the messenger RNA. And transfer RNA comes in the anti code on on transfer RNA binds to the code on on the messenger RNA, bringing in place an amino acid. Those amino acids are then put together to form a polyp peptide. So that's several things you can see that are going on with transcription and translation Again. I encourage you to read about it in the book and then um and then try and reproduce some of this by yourself. You'll learn better that way. Hope this helps have a great day.

Here wants us to explain how the short introduction, the introduction rather of short segments of Arnie containing that three prime untranslated region site sequences rather might remove that inhibition. So we know that the three prime untranslated region rather is essentially going Teoh function to basically improve in em, um, stability here. And also in this particular face, it can trump turn on the translation of enzyme. So by essentially allowing for the end times to be turned on in this particular case, I'm the three prime untranslated region here can help remove that inhibition. Did it the fact that it could promote DNA assimilation rather than methylation?

Recruitment off various ginger transcription factors for transcription Andi for governing the incorporation off various proteins within this place assume on Plex with the help off s are proteins it's governed by. So what I'm trying to say That promoter is the region which governs the recruitment off transcription factor for transcription incorporation of various proteins within the spot displays or some complex that the hater ade off Assad proteins. It is a nuclear type sequence off the promoter region that decides which general transcription factor will be recruited for the formation off basin basil transcription factor on which off the general transcription factor will in the right, with the it's odd routines to govern the composition off the place. Your soul complex. Therefore, ultimately it is the promoter region off the transcription unit, which indirectly governments despising off them. Three. A modern E. By governing the composition off the proteins off the place, you so complex


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