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Discuss your answer of the following questions below:a. Based on the data in this table; can we conclude that the Salk vaccine causes decrease in the rate of paraly...

Question

Discuss your answer of the following questions below:a. Based on the data in this table; can we conclude that the Salk vaccine causes decrease in the rate of paralytic polio?Paralytic PolioNo Paralytic PolioSalk Vaccine33200,712Placebo115201,114Why or why not?

Discuss your answer of the following questions below: a. Based on the data in this table; can we conclude that the Salk vaccine causes decrease in the rate of paralytic polio? Paralytic Polio No Paralytic Polio Salk Vaccine 33 200,712 Placebo 115 201,114 Why or why not?



Answers


In the largest clinical trial ever conducted, 401,974 children were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group consisted of 201,229 children given the Salk vaccine for polio, and 33 of those children developed polio. The other 200,745 children were given a placebo, and 115 of those children developed polio. If we want to use the methods of this section to test the claim that the rate of polio is less for children given the Salk vaccine, are the requirements for a hypothesis test satisfied? Explain.

Okay, So this problem says that children whose parents refused to participate in the randomized controlled trial got polio at a range of 46 per 100,000. But children whose parents consented to participation got polio at a slightly higher rate of 49 per 100,000. And this this'll holding was repeated the next year. And based on this data, some parents refused to have other children to participate in experiments because they didn't want the children to be exposed to a higher risk of polio. And the question is asking, Are these currents right or not? And they want a brief explanation. So these prints are not right, because, uh, they aren't taking into account the certain confounding variable. And that variable is a family income. On the surface, it may seem like those who participate in the trial, um, get polio at a slightly higher rate. Um, but you if you dig into it and actually think about it, um, those who participate ah, 10 the a lot of them will probably need the money for the probably A lot of them are participating just for the money, and they need more money. So they probably have like your lower family income, and thus they have less access to medical care. So in actuality, it's not the it's not the trial. It's not. The experiment that's causing polio is just the type of people who are choosing Thio participate in the experiment because they need the money. These types of people tend to be more on the slightly more poor. And fellas, they're more like Mi Teoh. Get polio just because they don't have as much access to metal cure medical care. It's not actually a few minutes. All sincerely, it might just be because the type of people who consent participation are just poor. They have last medical care and are thus get polio at a higher rate.

So the simple proportion can be computed As follows. P one is equal to X one over and one she simply like 30 three over 200,000 just. Mhm. Which is equal to 0.000. Okay. 165 Yeah. Y P tune is equal to X two over and two which is equal to 1:15 Over 100 1000 which is equal to zero consumers euros. Um I've sent five. Yeah. Mhm. And they pulled proportion we computed as P is equal to X one listen next to over and 1-plus 2 is equal to Your point is yours? You zero judge your six 8 to using a calculator. Mhm. Mhm. I'm sorry. Mhm. I meant yeah. Mhm. Yeah. 37 wow. The standard error is skirt P. There was one less p. It's two different and which secret is your point? It's a ceremony to So using this you can get the test statistic Z sp one sp two over The standard there. Which is equal to negative 674 oh. Now, since this is a one tailed test, the P value here is obtained from the standard on the tables as P See less than a negative six points up before to put 20, which is the p value. And since the P value it's zero, which is less than so your points, you're one which is the level of significance. The tests is significant here. And we can therefore reject the whole name. No hypothesis. And we have sufficient evidence get the vaccine. Mhm. That the vaccine is effective. Effective. And as we rejected de mel hypothesis. Yeah, we can conclude that the polio vaccine is effective. Is Thank you.

This question. We're looking up the flu vaccine. Why is it annual? It's because B strain of flu but is passing given population is different each flu season, and it is because of that anti genic frit. So be important. Proteins we're looking at is in Britain in a on De Niro minute days, and these accumulates mutations intentionally. So the difference each season on being you system coming. Recognize him on because this you needs a new vaccine of the new strength. And is it possible for flu to give a person influenza, or what was two types of flu vaccine and where you are? I'm If it is the inactivated form, it cannot give you flu various on existing life vaccine where it has been attenuated virus, and it is possible this schools and miles infection. But because of this, it has not given soon. People with weakened immune system. It is not given to pregnant women, the elderly, etcetera. Most people they only have the inactivated virus

Flu short and a flu vaccine. Yeah. Mhm. Mhm. Mhm. Do you think? Mhm. Okay. And influenza influenza flu shot is a flu vaccine. Usually you wouldn't be there. You didn't. Yes. In the arm three or 4 influenza vices 3 to 4 influenza viruses that research suggests maybe most common during the upcoming season. Yeah. Mhm. Type of types of Mhm. Flu shots. Yeah. It depends. Yeah. Number one driver link. Okay. Tri valent flu vaccine. Number two. Mhm. For Audrey violent flu vaccine of flu short. Yeah. Mhm. How effective is the seasonal flu short effectiveness? Mm. Mhm. Uh huh. In friend Zach. Mhm. Mhm. influenza vaccine influenza vaccine? The very influenza vaccine. Very season to season. Season to season and depends in part on the age and health status. Often name. Yeah. A person the vaccine and the similarity or match between the viruses in the vaccine does in the circulation. Mhm. During years when the flu vaccine match is good benefits of flu vaccine will vary depending on the factor like that characteristics. Mhm. Like the characteristics. Mhm. Mhm. Mhm. Yeah. Like the characteristics of the person being vaccinated. For example, their health and Yeah. Yeah. Help and their age. Mm. The health and the age. What potentially which what influenza mhm viruses are circulating the season? Yeah, circulating this season and potentially which type of flu vaccine was which type of vaccine was used after a smooth shot after a flu shot. Is it possible to cause influenza what? Yeah. influenza the floor. Common flu is a viral infection. Yeah, vital infection that spreads from person to person. Yeah. True Sneezing. Yeah. Mhm. Lungs. Uh huh. Well for example, sneezing. Medically the common flu is another name for influenza lungs. This virus infection. Yeah. Mhm. Okay. They're developed primarily in the lungs caused by other viruses. The flu actually a flu shot. Yes. Yeah. Or a flu vaccine. Okay. Mhm. Yeah. Mhm. The term influenza. Thank you. There's also a flu. So it is what possible after a few short dead influenza? Yeah. Mhm. Of course. Mhm. Yeah.


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