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Refer t0 the figure from Hillier et al (2003_ Nature 424.157 for this question_ The middle black solid line represents human chromosome 7, chromosomes 8 are depicte...

Question

Refer t0 the figure from Hillier et al (2003_ Nature 424.157 for this question_ The middle black solid line represents human chromosome 7, chromosomes 8 are depicted by the top black solid line_ whereas chromosomes 22 and the Y chromosome are depicted by the bottom black solid line: The main take-home message from this image was: DA. The vertical lines show locations of genes on chromosome the slanted lines connecting chromosome (o the other chromosomes Marks of" gene families hose members

Refer t0 the figure from Hillier et al (2003_ Nature 424.157 for this question_ The middle black solid line represents human chromosome 7, chromosomes 8 are depicted by the top black solid line_ whereas chromosomes 22 and the Y chromosome are depicted by the bottom black solid line: The main take-home message from this image was: DA. The vertical lines show locations of genes on chromosome the slanted lines connecting chromosome (o the other chromosomes Marks of" gene families hose members can also be found on chromosome 0 B The ventical lines show locations of one |0 thouSad base pair sequence Ad its repeats on chromasome the slmted lines connecting chromosome the other chromosomes MtkS locations of identical repeat DNA elements as found On chromosome 202172 0 C. The vertical lines show locations of transposable elemcuts On elomosome the slanted lines comnecting chromosome to thc other chromosomes marks of other transposable elememts. 0 D The vertical Hines show |ocutions of micro-Satellite DNA elements On chromosome the slanted Hines conneeting ehromosome t the other clremosomes matks of other micro-salellite DNA elements



Answers

How does the density of genes found on chromosome 22 compare with the density of genes found on chromosome $21,$ two similar-sized chromosomes? How does the number of genes on chromosome 22 compare with the number found on the Y chromosome? To answer these questions, go to www.ensembl.org. Under the heading Species, select Human. On the next page, click on View Karyotype. Pictures of the human chromosomes will appear. Click on chromosome 22 and select Chromosome Summary. You will be shown a picture of this chromosome and histograms of known genes (colored bars). The total numbers of coding (protein-encoding) genes, along with the chromosome length in base pairs, are given in the table at the bottom of the diagram. Write down the total length of the chromosome and the number of coding genes. Now go to chromosome 21 by selecting it from the Change Chromosome drop-down. Examine the total length and total number of protein-encoding genes for chromosome $21 .$ Now do the same for the $Y$ chromosome. Calculate the gene density (number of genes/length) for chromosomes $22,21,$ and Y. a. Which chromosome has the highest density and greatest number of genes? Which has the fewest? b. Examine in more detail the genes at the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome by clicking on the top bar in the histogram of genes. Jump to location view. A more detailed view will be shown. What known genes are found in this region? How many protein-encoding genes are there in this region?

Generally this question provides a description that we must understand to answer both questions. A and B. Hence I have drawn um these two pairs of homeless chromosomes as described which are I. A. And I. B. As well as I I A. And I. I be the question specifies the location of several eels on the chromosomes. And we will use this information provided to draw the respective jeans. Um for question A. In particular, it asked us to draw the location of these genes on chromosomes during meta phase. One of my Asus assuming no crossover occurs. So firstly for a little application M. This is found on the chromosome aye ayes long arm. Thus it will be found in these two occasions. Sorry. Yeah. On the other hand, leo lower case M. Is found in the same position but on consumed by B. Which means it will be here. In contrast. A little uppercase P. Is found on the short arm of I. A. So here wow, a little lower case P. Is also located in the same position, but in bed in his home a log. So in I. B. So here for the other homologous pair Aaliyah uppercase R. Is located in chromosome I. I. A. It will be here and Aaliyah lowercase are can be found in the same position. But I I be so here. Now we have identified where the genes are located but to complete this answer. We simply need to draw the spindle fibers reaching from these central homes from an attaching to each of these central mirrors of the chromosomes. So it will look something like. Okay, moving on to question be this. Now asked us to draw the possible game meats resulting from aosis. This involves taking into consideration that no crossing over occurs and chromosomes undergo random separation and faced one. Hence this suggests that after separating sister commenters and and face to individual chromosomes of I. A. So these ones, each of these after separation can be separated into a cell with either an individual chromosome II A. Or I. I. Be. So it could be either these two. Yeah, the same goes for the separated chromosomes. A separate committed. Sorry, of I. B. So these ones um which can end up in a cell with either I. I. A. Or IIB. Due to these assumptions, I've drawn the possible resulting of meats of these. Of this moses here. So, as I mentioned before is I am I A. I. And II B. I. B. And II A. And I B. And II A. Thank you.

So we first in 1/2 to draw a cell in meta Phase one. And that cell has to have the chromosomes. Ah, with their genes in a particular way. And so let's see if I could do this. So question says there's going to be no crossing over, so I'm not gonna have them very close to touching, but not quite touching. So that's my first pair of homologous chromosomes. And here is my second pair, homologous chromosomes. I'm just trying the chromosomes. And first, and then they will leave on my wheels. Right. And the wheel could be put sort of any place on the chromosomes. Um, but I'm going to have, uh my big P Leo. That's a big P and my big peel here. And then my big Emma Leo here and there's gonna be another big Emily ill. They're kind of hard to see that one. Um, And in this chromosome, we're gonna have our little P Leo and our little Emma Leo. And of course, they'll be little peas and a little Emily Oldham that committed as well. And then this one, the crime some on the left will have the big are Leal's and the Kremlin. So on the right, we'll have the little our Leos. So this is to a This is to be This is one A and this is one. Be so that's the answer toe question. A keep in mind, things be, could be mere images and stuff like that. That's sort of just upto. However you chose to draw it for be then were asked to produce Gandhi's the GAM meats that can come out of this assuming there's no crossing over and that makes a big difference. So we're gonna hand up with four game meats and I will start with two here. Um, and remember, this is the end of my Oh, sis, But we're going to have to. Chromosomes are gonna be employed, um, and and they don't have to be in my ASUs our meta face so they could just be sort of hither and young, right? And this will be a big P. That's when we'll have a big M and this one will have a big are. So this game he has all the dominant Jalil's and then this one well again have the big P and the Big M well but it will have the lower case. R a Leo. All right, so that's two of our for a game meats. Look to the other two. So this these air big p began big r and big p begin. Little are than we need to switch to new little P and little M So so little p and little M. And this 1st 1 will have the big Our Leo on the second chromosome. And then finally, we will again have little p little m. And finally, little are so this one is as the recess of all three recess. It feels so, therefore, gaming's that can be made from this set up. Assuming that there's no crossing over, keep in mind if there's crossing over that, it would get more complicated.

Those question explains a simple procedure. An experiment. Um, and they were just looking at the fraction of cells and my toes is over time and were given a graph for this. So promotion, eh? It asks what all cells be accepted are expected to contain the radioactive DNA. Um, after they are labeled in the experiment and on lee the cells that are in the S phase of their cell cycle, Um, and the ass phasing that cells are making DNA. Um, during the 30 minute labeling period may contain any radioactive unite number. Question be it asks. Initially, there are no my tonic cells that contain radioactive DNA. We want to know why. This is, um so initially might have excels contained no radioactive Dina, because these cells, um, we're not engaged And, uh, Deena synthesis during living period. It takes about two hours for the 1st 8 will make hot Excel with here. Next, we went to explain the rise and fall, and then the rise again of this curve that we see and just for reference, the curve looks something like this. Besides, what? This question is your friend. So the initial rise of the curve corresponds to cells that were just finishing DNA replication. When the radioactive diamond in was added, a curve rises, more is more labelled. Cells entered my toe, sis, and the peak corresponds to those cells. I just started the s phase in the radioactive gravity was added. So this first arise is, um so starting ass fades. Whether that was they were just finishing it when this, I mean, it was at or they were just starting it when it was added, the labelled cells, then exit for my toes is replaced by unable. Night hot excels which were not in the s phase during the labeling period. So cells then exit my closest and that's the fall and last after 20 hours occur. So it's rising again because it labeled toes. Enter second, my cases and lastly, want to estimate the length of the S phase from this graph. So the initial two hour lag before any label might have excels appear corresponds to the G T phase. Um, which is the time between the end of the S phase and beginning of my toe sis. The first labelled cells seen in my toes is where those just finishing s phase when they radioactive gabardine was added. So in summary, the, um again, the first table cells were those that were just finishing the s phase eso The initial two hour lag corresponds to the G two phase.

In this case, both men and women. Uh, finna typically normal. Okay. Typically known well as women in this case. These it is, I guess, for baby centric inversion beauty centric inversions que the probability off couple producing that side read debilitating syndrome as a result of cop crossing over between very centric inversion would be 50%. So the chances off crossing over between normal men and women suffering from hitters, I guess for payday centric inversion, maybe 50%.


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