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8-12 years old child's eye retina area is yellow. Which met- hodology do you follow to develop a biotechnological solu- tion for this problem? Please; describe...

Question

8-12 years old child's eye retina area is yellow. Which met- hodology do you follow to develop a biotechnological solu- tion for this problem? Please; describe your methodology in the terms of molecular biology, biotechnology and bioen- gineering:

8-12 years old child's eye retina area is yellow. Which met- hodology do you follow to develop a biotechnological solu- tion for this problem? Please; describe your methodology in the terms of molecular biology, biotechnology and bioen- gineering:



Answers

Color vision results from the absorption of light by the cone cells of the retina. Briefly describe how different types of cone cells give rise to color vision. What is the chemical substance primarily responsible for human vision? How can its color absorption be changed?

Imagine the child is born with cataracts on both eyes on years later, beer surgically removed. What is the child's initial vision like? But Charles will not understand. Um, Presidents understands what information means. The Charles can distinguish between two objects can distinguish between objects Azzan the child can save. These are the same all these different, but it has no point of reference to compare this to, so the child would not be able to recognize on objects from touching it on. It takes more time for the brain to develop this visual visual understanding of objects to be able to use vision properly.

Fastly. We're gonna be taking a look at retinal cells, so every retinal cell has two alleles for red. No blast Omer. So a child that has multiple tumors in both of the eyes will indicate that multiple cells of the retina has been mutated in both of these. Aaliyah's unfortunately, so unless there is a mutation in both of the sails of the cell, Cheema will not be produced. So for the child with multiple tumors, every cell in the retina has one copy of the defective gene from birth. However later, many spontaneous mutations Duke advise the cells that have to defective genes. So a cell with two defective genes will give rise to a tumor, where, as a child with a single tumor and one eye indicates that eight that it has a cell with two defective genes. So this is a rat when I'm gonna. As all other cells in the retina are normal, however, we on the one cell that is mutated with both of these animals so that the mutated cells has both the RB genes defective and this leads to it leads to a single tumor in one eye

Know how to clone a gene, provided that we know the genetic code. So the question is, imagine you want to study one of the human crystal ins there? Ah, protein President, The lens of the eye Do tennis sufficient amount of this protein you need Thio clone the genes that code for it. Assuming we know the gene sequence, how would we do this? So we would need to amplify our gene sequence. And to do that, we're gonna use PCR. So PCR is a three step process that'll drought here for us. First step, his de natural ation. So in the dinner saturation step will heat the DNA strand to briefly separate the two strands. So the double set of DNA is heated to separate it into two strands, so heat. So then, in Step two, the a kneeling step. The DNA is allowed to cool, and primers form hydrogen bonds with the ends of the target sequence. So yet a primer on the ends of the target sequence during the any link step. So then finally, step three is extension. So in the extension step, DNA polyamorous adds nucleotides to the three prime end of each primer so Step two, we got our primers and Step three here. I had primaries to step three because they would be there already in Step three. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the three prime end so good our DNA prelim raise and that is going thio. Add primers to finish our strand or add nucleotides to finish your strand. So that's one cycle of PCR. But PCR is cycled many times to get the desired sequence. So after three cycles, there would be two molecules that would match the target sequence, which wouldn't be nearly enough. But after 30 more cycles, over a billion molecules would match the target sequence so quickly the target sequences amplified, and it would give us plenty of protein after it was sent into a bacteria to be replicated and pro have protein transcribed from this DNA. It would yield plenty of protein for us to study the crystal ins. So to answer this question, if we wanted Thio clone the gene that codes for human crystal ins and we know the gene sequence, we would do it using PCR

You're looking at the eyeless teen, it's and co za home your domain. What can we predict about its function? So a home your domain is found in transcription fax. It's so chances are this is also a transcription factor be Where's we predict it would be expressed? We'll be mutants is missing eyes by this required for its for be developments of ice. So we would expect we would expect it to be expressed only in those cells, but found give us eyes so it expressed in my belt. Menzel tissue on. To test this, we could use institute hybridization and observe the mRNA expression, ization and visualization No one would expect to see. Um, there's only founds where we would get arts. Funny part. See, we have to over jeans Small I and Andy Radia is found in mice and humans on their very similar to the eyeless protein. How can we test if they are functionally equivalents? Well, we could use a transgenic experiments where we Kurds substitutes either us or small I, for example, and see what happens. Substitutes, eyeless or small. I and we can see if eyes form wherever we put small. I


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