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3. (30 points) Describe the regulatory mechanisms of the Cell Cycle in detaill...

Question

3. (30 points) Describe the regulatory mechanisms of the Cell Cycle in detaill

3. (30 points) Describe the regulatory mechanisms of the Cell Cycle in detaill



Answers

Describe the general conditions that must be met at each of the three main cell-cycle checkpoints.

When looking at a basic explanation of the cell theory. There are three main components to understand in order to understand the whole cell theory. The cell theory is a scientifically agreed on, UM, set of rules that govern basic science when it comes to cells. Firstly, the first rule of cell theory is that all living things are composed themselves, whether this is multicellular or Younis cellular either or all living things bigger, small are composed of cells. Secondly, in the cell theory, cells are the basic units of structure and function. For example, the heart, which is made out of heart tissue, which is made out of heart cells, or the lungs, therefore made out of tissue made out of cells. Cells are the basic building block for all these structures and functions. Thirdly, in the cell theory there are the new cells are produced from existing cells. Therefore, this is through whether it's through reproduction. A sexually or sexually new cells have to be produced from already existing cells. Through my toes is or my oh sis

If you are familiar with computer programming terms, the function of P 53 is a lot like a debugging program. It's going to tell the cell there's something wrong, and it's going to stop running the program to allow for the fixing of the debug or for the complete termination of the cell. So in the case that you have a cell, we'll say that you have a certain mutation that's going to break certain aspects of the healthy genes genetic makeup. So we call this no longer healthy. In a normal circumstance, this will be detected by your P 53 protein, and this will cause a stopping of the cell cycle and will cause apoptosis, whereas in the case of a non healthy or dysfunctional P 53 your cell will still continue with the cell cycle, and we'll still continue to divide. So here p 53 praise a large role in stopping the cell cycle and rupturing the cell in case there is something wrong with the genetic makeup and the production of proteins within the cell. In cancerous cells, your P 53 will often be dysfunctional, and these will allow you to sell to divide and sort of replicate that mutation on to further cell generations. And this can eventually lead to uncontrolled replication and mutation development. Okay, cause the formation of cancer.

Okay, so we're looking back in question number two again. We remember that we had three organisms that scientists studied that gave them a greater understanding this cell cycle. And two of those were yeasts, and they were both very similar. But they were different, and their differences actually hoped. Lead two more discoveries about the cell cycle and especially discoveries about our own self. So what makes these both great to study? So first off, the first one's name is s Syria, this year s service. See, I This is a butting, he's and we'll see why it's called that in the future. And the second is called, Yes, Home Bay. And this is a fishing east again. We'll see why it's called that here in a second. So both of these both are great. We're looking, um, units. So in other words, it's really easy to find the ones that have messed up DNA. And it's easy to look at them and see why. Because eyes okay of only one copy of each gene. So if one of those genes messes up, then they're automatically going to show that mutation. But for example, if it were humans, we give a chromosome for mom and a chromosome from bad. So one is mutated than the other one can help take over and produced proper protein. So these two years don't do that. And it makes it really great at seeing where the mutations air happening and what their cause it. So let's look a s service. He high first. This one is key. Difference is s assistant his name. It's a budding east. So this means is, as it's growing through itself cycle, we're not going to get very in touch with it. But as it's going through itself cycle that starts to grow a little, but and it starts to get bigger and bigger and DNA replication. We'll start to happen and basically eventually will split off. But DNA replication is happening while this little but is growing on its side. And so all right, that's up here. This is a budding he's. And so what makes these so interesting look at is ah, allow scientists to physically to see what stage of the cell site what stage of the cell cycle these deserve. So because there is a bud growing on the side of this yeast, we know what stage it's at each time, because we can look inside that we could see the soul machinery happening. And so we know that if it's here, it might be in a specific stage, like another growth phase for baby in s phase. And as we keep going, we know from its physical appearance what stage it's in. So this is really great to look at, and it really let's scientist no. What? It lets them know what mutations are causing the differences. Because if it stops here, if the cycle stops there, they might be able to pinpoint a mutation that happened right there, too. The Roaring Rapids genetics by looking at the physical and then the second kind. Yes, okay is efficient needs. And it's called this because as it goes through the cell cycle, it splits revision. So the easiest way to draw this is Here's one cell. There's nucleus in the middle, and eventually what happens first is the nucleus will start to split and everything we pulled apart and the splits at the middle. So for drawing this, we have another nucleus. Here we have one here. It's starting to split right down the middle here, and eventually it will turn into use every east. And so the reason this is important is because it's very similar. This is very similar to our own cell division. This is how ourselves do it. They split down the middle of a copy older genetic stuff first. Then they split. That's not like the other yeast, where it's physically growing something on its side. And then as it that progresses, Deanna gets copy. So this second species deficient niece was very important because it

This question. Ask us to use an example to explain enzyme feedback inhibition. So I take an example from the glycol Isis reaction in black alliances after glucose is activated too critical six force fit on. Then it will be thanks a size two to fruitful six Force fit This molecule would be This molecule would be catalyzed by forceful Fertile Keane is on their product is fruit is photos 16 Peace force fate on the eventually the final product off Michael Isis is para bait on 80 p. This is a feedback inhibition because a teepee, if they are too much a teepee produced in this reaction a teepee will will find it to the will Bind it to the forceful, fruitful, keen ease under as a non competitive inhibitor so that the photos six force fit will has will have less ability will have less affinity to to this enzyme so that the entire reaction will slow down or even


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