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Observations and Results: Nutrient Agar Plate Cultures cereus (03) coli (11)M luteus (15)aeruginosa (18)Bacterial SpeciesShapeMarginElevationOpacity B cereus (03) T...

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Observations and Results: Nutrient Agar Plate Cultures cereus (03) coli (11)M luteus (15)aeruginosa (18)Bacterial SpeciesShapeMarginElevationOpacity B cereus (03) Trrqvbr [Uhdulale faiscd OPaqu coli (11) kiraularl Entif € Raisss Beie& M luteus (15) cifcu larEntire konvex Sellow Paeruginosa (18) krculrkndulatlmblnabtTonsket Gr Uffos;e( 9r Nutrient Agar Slant Culturescereus (03)E:coli (11)M luteus (15) P aeruginosa (18) ffusspiffux Echimukt Begded Echinulatx Dty Wh te ~TonslucenT Srratsa ni

Observations and Results: Nutrient Agar Plate Cultures cereus (03) coli (11) M luteus (15) aeruginosa (18) Bacterial Species Shape Margin Elevation Opacity B cereus (03) Trrqvbr [Uhdulale faiscd OPaqu coli (11) kiraularl Entif € Raisss Beie& M luteus (15) cifcu larEntire konvex Sellow Paeruginosa (18) krculrkndulatlmblnabtTonsket Gr Uffos;e( 9r Nutrient Agar Slant Cultures cereus (03) E:coli (11) M luteus (15) P aeruginosa (18) ffusspiffux Echimukt Begded Echinulatx Dty Wh te ~TonslucenT Srratsa nils LinAume ni colony/cultural Characteristics 0f Selected Bacteria yelloss'



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A pure culture of an unknown bacterium was streaked onto plates of a variety of media. You notice that the colony morphology is strikingly different on plates of minimal media with glucose compared to that seen on trypticase soy agar plates. How can you explain these differences in colony morphology?

In this problem, we are learning how to manipulate exponential in log arrhythmic functions in an implied problem. So in this case, we have some sort of population. I think it was bacteria, which is a very straightforward and common problem for exponential learning. So in this case, we're just going to be understanding the relationship between log rhythmic and exponential models. So for part A, we're told to make a scatter plot of the data, and that's what this would look like. This is a scatter plot, which you can plug into a calculator or a graphing utility for Part B. We're told. Well, what's going to be the exponential equation for that scatter plot? Well, when you graph it, um, that utility, whether it be a calculator or an online graphing utility, would give you the function. And the function for that scatter plot is why equals 0.903 times 1.3384 raised to the X, So we can definitely see that we have an exponential function because we have something raised to the X. So for part C, we have to rearrange it to get to get our function into more of an explicit form. So the new form we need is end of T equals and not times he raised to the Katie. This is much more of a common way to write exponential functions because this gives us more information. So we're gonna let a B N not N b x b e raised the k t. So we can see from this form that beat the X equals eat the X rays to the T. So remember, we're going to be substituting from our original equation. So is going to be 0.903 be times e to the X is going to be 1.3384 and we want K, so K is going to be equivalent to the natural log of 1.3384 which is point 2915 Now, this step might have been confusing. Why am I solving for K and why do I have a natural log? Okay, is the variable that we're missing right now in the form that we needed to be in and then we wanted to get rid of this e to the X and the way to do that is to essentially inverse. It used the inverse to cancel it out. Thean verses of E to the X is the natural log, and that's how we got that step. And now we're very close to finding the new equation. So N F T is going to be equal 2.903 times e raised 2.2915 t and that is the new equation basically tells us the same information, but just a little bit more specifically now. Finally, for not finally, we have a few more for D. We have to graph this function now in an exponential form, and this is what it would look like again. You can just plug it into a calculator or put it in a graphing utility for e were told. Well, what's going to happen if t iss seven well, just plug in t into our equation, so N f t. Or really end of seven would be equal 2.903 times e raised 2.2915 times seven. Just plug it into a calculator and you'll get an empty is 0.69 and now Finally, we're asked what's going to happen? How long will it take, really? To reach a population of 0.75? Well, now we can do that with the new form of our equation. It makes it much easier. So 0.75 would be equal 2.903 e raised a 0.2915 t, so we have to rearrange this a little bit. E raised two point 2195 t would be equal 2.7 over 0.903 Then we want to rearrange this and we'll take the natural log of Pardon me of this side. So we'll have 0.2915 t we canceled out the exponential by taking the natural log would be equal to the natural log of this fraction, which is 8.3056 So T would be equal to the natural log of 8.3056 over point to 195 and we would get 7.26 hours. That's how long it would take to reach the population of 0.75 So I hope that this problem helped you understand a little bit more about log arrhythmic and exponential functions and how we can use them in a more of an implied problem by finding the different, um, conditions that would satisfy the data and the relationships that were told in the problem.

On the image off the given caution. It is absurd. Able that plate that only have ampicillin resistant bacteria includes played number four, and the correct answer is option C.

Okay. So we need to prove that the surface area is six micrometers and the volume is one like meter cubic. And so it's cylindrical and lengthen the diameter. It was a long micro little radius. We are going to .5 microfilm readers. So there I have a cylinder is given by opposed to two pi R L being linked plus pi R squared plus pi R squared. We're just going to equal to two times three 0.14. Most amusing for by times 0.5 times two plus two times 3.1 four Times 45 sq. No, it's gonna give US seven. I didn't put units on that but it's micrometers squared times one volume equals pi R squared Times else. That's going to equal to 3.14 times 0.5 squared times two. My commuters cubic. We're just an equal to 1.5 Micro m. Cute. Which is equal to 1.5 my perimeters Cube Times two. Which are both close enough to verify that the area is equal to six micro leaders. The volume is equal to one micro with cubic Michael. Meet or not, peter sorry. So to find the fentaNYL Leaders of them, we know that 1000 liters is equal to one m cubic and Monsanto is equal 10 to 15 which means that right volume equals two one. My creator stupid. You're equals to one. My palm reader cubic times um Over 10 to the 6th micro meters and times 1000 the leaders over von reader. You do Times 10: 15. Whatever one leader equals to one the asset for the lot of bacteria and the weight of the cells. Democracy let's say they were the same boring decoys earlier. So we have we P. Equals 10 To the -18. He was cute. Total volume is 1028. So we have this equation B F. T. Equals and B. P Equals 10-28 Times 10 to the -18 meters cute equals turn to the turn meters cute. Which equals to 10 km cute the lesson that for the main space and you know the volume available. So We can assume that it's about 2/3 And from there take 2/3 of that. What will give us about Three times into the 14 m. Weird. So 10028 cells four or six times 10 to 16 years cubic equals 100 cells per millimeter cubic. Because the three I promise they will go.

Okay, So 63 here we have this hypothetical experiment where we have grown equal I two ways and two strains. So either with without antibiotic and East train, either with or without the antibiotic resistance and in particular when we look att tthe e antibiotic resistant strain. When it's grown on a plate without any antibiotic, we get a lot of growth. Okay, so it is no antibiotic, and that's the Empress Ilin. And and, uh, when it's grown with the ampicillin, it was just a few of them. And the question is, what? Why are there less of them? If all of these, in theory, have this, uh, plus news this in plasmid when we do this plasma in this process of transformation is done, you take this cell in the cell is gonna have a sort of d n a component, and it's gonna pull in from the environment, this plasmid right? And so it pulls it in from the environment and incorporate it into its own DNA. But it's quite possible, you know, that some of the cells and the calling didn't didn't pull it in right pulling from their environment, so some of them won't do that process and we'll stay. Stay as they were. Okay, so not every cell will be successfully transformed. And that's where we get this. This difference and can that's best described then by the letter choice, eh? Correspond to that?


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