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Which of the following characleristics Indicales Ihe presence ol weak Intermolecular lorces In & Ilquld?Select one Iow heat ol vaponzalionlow vapour pressurea h...

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Which of the following characleristics Indicales Ihe presence ol weak Intermolecular lorces In & Ilquld?Select one Iow heat ol vaponzalionlow vapour pressurea high surtace lensionda high boiling point

Which of the following characleristics Indicales Ihe presence ol weak Intermolecular lorces In & Ilquld? Select one Iow heat ol vaponzalion low vapour pressure a high surtace lension da high boiling point



Answers

Which of the following properties indicates very strong intermolecular forces in a liquid? (a) very low surface tension, (b) very low critical temperature, (c) very low boiling point, (d) very low vapor pressure.

Okay. Hi there. In this problem, let's talk about inter molecular forces. War simply I am forces inter molecular means forces that occurred between molecules. Okay, so these are gonna forces that hold molecules together, thus allowing them to form liquids or even solids. These were going to include your Vander Waals forces, which would be your London dispersion forces. You are dipole interactions or dipole dipole and hydrogen bonding. Yeah, The London Dispersion forces are typically thought of as being the weakest. Um, except when you start getting large molecular weight molecules, then the London Dispersion forces could be much stronger. The larger the molecule size di pulled. I polar typically thought it was being intermediate. And hydrogen bonding are typically the strongest inter molecular forces. They're going to occur between molecules that contain hydrogen to flooring hydrogen to oxygen or hydrogen to nitrogen bonds. The most common substance, of course, that we see hydrogen bonding in is of course water. Right. So in this question, we are trying to determine which property would tell you that you have strong inter molecular forces. So first of all, let's talk about surface tension. Surface tension is that property where the surface of a liquid acts almost like a skin. You could think about water in the surface. Tension of water. It allows water bugs to walk on top of water. Or, if you're really careful, you can balance a paper clip or float a paper clip on top of water. Even though the paper clip is more dense, that is because of surface tension. So substances that have strong inter molecular forces, we'll have a high surface tension so strong I am forces. Yeah, yeah, thank you. We give you a high surface tension, so that eliminates answer choice. A. Because answer choice A. Says low surface tension. Let her be talks about critical temperature. Critical temperature is the temperature which a substance cannot exist as a liquid. Despite however much pressure you put on it, it still cannot exist as a liquid, um, things with strong inter molecular forces have higher critical temperatures. Okay, with so that eliminates answer choice because the answer choice be says very low critical temperature, so that would be weak into molecular forces. For that, let's talk about boiling points. We're boiling points are the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas at a particular pressure. Eso in order to change for liquid toe a gas. The inter molecular forces holding the molecules together as a liquid have to be broken. So the stronger the inter molecular forces, the higher the boiling points. So that also eliminates answer choice. See the last one letter D says. Very low vapor pressure vapor pressure is the equilibrium pressure formed by the gas above its liquid. So substances that have strong inter molecular forces are not going to evaporate very readily and therefore they will have low vapor pressures. Okay, so we can see from this letter D is the correct answer here Substances with strong inter molecular forces. We'll have a low vapor pressure. Thank you for watching.

Substances of that. Strong inner molecular forces have a great deal of attraction between their molecules and that strong attraction effect some of its properties. For example, quote critical temperature If you're looking at critical temperature, Critical temperature is the point at which a vapor can no longer vapor and liquid can no longer be at equilibrium. Reason for that is if the molecules are more attractive, it takes more energy for it to go into the gas phase. So if there's higher in a molecular forces, the critical temperature will be higher because the particles are closer together for boiling point. If you're trying to boil a substance and the molecules are attracted to each other, it is going to take more energy to separate or break those attractive forces. So it's going to require a higher temperature for vapor pressure. It's gonna be the opposite If I have a liquid and I'm looking at how maney particles are released into a vapor, there are gonna be last particles released into a vapor. If the molecules within the liquid are highly attracted to each other, so the vapour pressure would be lower, and the last one is heat of vaporization or the amount of energy needed to go from a liquid to a vapor that would also increase because of the strong, attractive forces between the molecules, It would take more kinetic energy in order for those to break free of the attractive forces.

Today we will be having a look at inter molecular forces. Let's start by talking about the six different types of inter military forces before we get into the problem. So there is yeah, diapers are resources. Mhm Yeah. Just hydrogen bonding. Yeah, I am vital forces. Okay. Uh huh. Yeah. I am induced stifled. Uh huh. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm Yeah. Died close induced typo forces. Yeah. And finally dispersion forces. Uh huh. Or some people like to call it blood forces. So let's start off with iron induced I pull force and I feel like the name gives away what it is actually about. It is an ion which induces a disciple. So a positive or negative ion needs to be present. Mhm. Which means a katana or an anodyne should be present. As shown in the image and this charge here can be induced Yeah. Into neighbouring molecules. Mhm. So this force needs to components it needs and I are something that was charged and something better than neutral. The ion approaches the non polar atom or molecule which is neutral and it causes distortion in the electron cloud of the non polar molecule, which results in electrostatic attraction. As we can see here. This molecule here is has no die. Paul has no charge completely neutral and then an ion comes into the picture and then it disrupts the electron cloud. Let me see here, this is the electron cloud here. It disrupts the electron cloud and induces that I pulled. Now moving on to dispersion forces aka London forces. What you need to know about it is that every molecule, every ion has them. Every molecule will have these forces and they come up due to the electron cloud being disrupted so horses. Yeah. And every molecule custom. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. They may be the dominant internet the force in some molecules and they might not be in some there might be a hydrogen pointing as the dominant molecule for some molecules. But you need to remember that every molecule has London forces. It is caused from the result of changes in electron electron density distribution. An atom or molecule, a temporary die paul forms in an atom or non polar molecule that is then attractive to another non polar or atom. So let's have a look at that image here. You can see that there is symmetrical institution of electrons but obviously electrons are not um in one place there continuously moving. And because of this continuous movement it will cause an instantaneous diaper which is also the same thing as a temporary diaper. And then when a dyke was formed obviously there's going to be a charge. So this will be delta that long delta negative and this will be dealt a positive and then obviously the delta positive side, it will induce a disciple into the neighbouring molecules and the delta positive side will be attracted to delta negative side. The larger and electron cloud, meaning the more electrons molecule has, the more polarized double the atom is on a non polar molecule. And the greater the dispersion forces, the greater the surface area of an atom or the non polar molecule that created the dispersion area. So we've already, there's two factors that affect the dispersion forces, electron cloud and surface area. The larger they are, the greater the dispersion forces, strength increases with the increasing electrons and larger atoms because the electron, so you might be asking yourself why it is a larger electron cloud lead to greater dispersion forces because the electron clouds are easier to distort if they are larger, they're more polarized, herbal, two other atoms and with larger molecules we know greater discretion forces. So the boiling point will also increases about That's something important to keep in mind moving on to disciple disciple forces. This is a pretty straightforward one is just a disciple interacting with that. I pull all polar molecules have permanent dye polls And die. Political forces occur from the positive end of one typo as we can see here. The positive end on one permanent Apple is attracted to the negative end of another. Permanent opal increasing dipole moment increases the polarity. So boiling point increases as well because there are stronger interactions, so more energy is required. That's pretty straightforward. Moving on to hydrogen bonding. Think of it as a super form of type a type of forces. It occurs in polar molecules with hydrogen atoms bind bonded. Sorry, wanted to electro negative atom. So what do you need to know is that there needs to be a polar molecule? Yeah. With I didn't atoms that could be one more money and the hydrogen atom has to be bonded to a highly electro negative package. But the highly Elektra Elektra negative atom has to also be small. All right. So what are the three options? Yeah, fleury Oxford and like everyone. So basically hydrogen bonding. So, you're talking about um bonded to F. O. Or in These three options here. Despite the name being hydrogen bonding, it is still an inter molecular force to think of it as that. So just to repeat, the hydrogen on a polar molecule must be bonded to a highly electro negative atom and the electro negative item should have a lone pair to accept the hydrogen. That's why these options eliminate all the other atoms. 23 options flooring oxygen and natural because they have long pairs to accept the hydrogen and they're very highly electra negative and small molecules moving with the diaper and use type of forces. Again, the name explains what it is. It is a die poll which induces a die pole onto its neighboring molecules. So it is a molecule that has a die poll slash. It is polar and it interacts with the neighbouring molecules and the neighbouring molecules must be mutual to induce a typo. So let's introduce the players. It has to be um polar slash mall molecule that has a bible and has to interact with a mutual molecule. Yeah, yeah. To induce a disciple interest, it occurs between molecules with a permanent I pull and an atom or non polar molecules. So again, the two molecules present in this type of force is something that is polar and something that is non polar. But a temporary dye poll is induced as you can even see in this image over here. Finally moving on to ion diaper forces Again, the name is pretty self explanatory. It is an ion interacting with a molecule that has a diaper. It occurs between an ion and a polar molecule. Just to introduce the players over here. I'll Yeah, that's a cooler market. Yeah, meaning a molecule the hazardous. Okay, okay. So now that we understand the types of internet life versus let's actually move on to the question. I have written down the molecules using the key because I feel like it would be easier if we can answer the question this way rather than just seeing circles colored circles. So we have to identify the dominant into my local forces in these present in these four molecules. Obviously I recommend that you pause the video first answered and come back to see if you got the question right or not. Yeah. So let's see here for the first molecule. We can see that flooring is bonded to hydrogen. And what does that mean? That means that this is hydrogen bonding into molecular floor is present in the first molecule is hydrogen bonding. Yeah, it's just And the second molecule you can see that the flooring is bonded to flooring. What does that mean? That means there's no difference in charges, electro negativity. Nothing. That means that it's just discretion forces or blending forces. Yeah. Yes, mm. Here the most important part for the third molecule. We see an eye on bondage to a molecule that has a die poor because we already know that water has a deep hole. Mhm. Yeah. So this means that the third molecule has iron 54 Yes, we can't say that the third molecules and I am induced typo because water is a molecule that already has a permanent dipole. Moving on to the last molecule. We can see that these two molecules here. So to or have permanent typos already your hospital built of positive and oxygen has the results are negative. So that means that these molecules already have a permanent cycle. So the last molecule is that old. That's cool forces. Mhm. Also we have to identify which molecule has the weakest injure molecular force possibly you and try to think Which one it could be. Well, it's the last it's the second molecule. The smoke is here. The flooring borders. The flooring needs dispersion forces. Right? Dispersion forces are the weakest out of all of the molecules of all the forces are

So in this question, we are ranking substances in order from lowest to highest based on boiling point. So we have sodium chloride, helium, carbon monoxide and H 20 water. So first, let's look at helium. This is a noble gas. So it has no inter molecular forces, no die polls. None of that, um so this will have the lowest boiling point. Next, let's look at carbon monoxide, which is see triple bonded to Oh, and this is a polar bond. So there will be die pulled. I pull forces di pulled, I pull attractions. So that means that it will have higher boiling point than helium. But we will look at water, which is age Teoh, which is holer, and it has hydrogen bonds and we know that each bonds or are stronger than die pulled. I pull forces so this will water will have a higher bowling point than carbon monoxide. So if we're if we're ranking them, we have lowest one to carbon monoxide to H 202 an a. C l, which has ionic bonds. So that will obviously be stronger than the convey lint bones in water and whatever inter molecular forces water has. So any seal has the highest boiling point. Helium has the lowest


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