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Question 31 (2 points) Siieueu Which . otethe following might be an effect of phosphate dehydrogenase that reducefe mutation in mitochondrial glycerol 3 its activit...

Question

Question 31 (2 points) Siieueu Which . otethe following might be an effect of phosphate dehydrogenase that reducefe mutation in mitochondrial glycerol 3 its activity? The rate of electron transfer through the electron transport chain will increase Lactate dehydrogenase activity will increase:QHz will a buildup in the inner mitochondrial membraneThe amount of ATP generated per glucose molecule will decrease.ATP synthase activity will stop.

Question 31 (2 points) Siieueu Which . otethe following might be an effect of phosphate dehydrogenase that reducefe mutation in mitochondrial glycerol 3 its activity? The rate of electron transfer through the electron transport chain will increase Lactate dehydrogenase activity will increase: QHz will a buildup in the inner mitochondrial membrane The amount of ATP generated per glucose molecule will decrease. ATP synthase activity will stop.



Answers

Using your understanding of the organization of the mitochondrion and how it generates ATP, answer the following questions. Give a brief explanation of each answer. a. What would be the effect on ATP production of adding a substance (protonophore) that makes the mitochondrial membrane leaky to protons? b. What would be the effect on the pH of the mitochondrial matrix of reducing the oxygen supply? c. Suppose that the glucose supply to the cell is greatly reduced. What would be the effect on $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ production by the mitochondria?

Okay. In response to this question, let's talk about the positive correlation process started closing by Towanda. This is the this is going to be the outer mitochondrial membrane and this is going to be the Internet. A fundamental Okay. The other contracting chain is found here and the enemy remembering because four complexes and was transported here. What is called the 80 piece entries. Okay, so we have an 80 age in a video is too that they are that they transport electrons. Okay, this is a mitochondrial matrix and stay. Remember that was a space. So once these electron reporters get to meet a condom, they are going to unload electrons to this. A little approaching and electricity is the flow from one complex to another. And the purpose of this is to pump protons votomatics to the international space. Okay, we're going to pump protons and we're going to create a high levels of protein here and low levels of proteins here. So, because of gradients, protons are going to are going to want to move back to the matrix. But the problem is that this intimated by the Kernel memory is not permissible to products. So they are only a way by which they can come back to the matrix. It's by this 80 piece in face. And when they do this, 80% age is going to force correlate one ADP molecules introduced. Hate to be okay. So this is this is how the selected reporters produce a T. P through this mechanism of of the latin trapper chain. So the question says, give a brief a brief explanation of each answer a question. A says What will be the effect of 80p product production of adding a substance that makes the mitochondrial membrane dedicated proteins. So if this inner membrane is not, is not working in this league, two protons then all this gradient of proteins here are going to move back To the metal problematic without using the TTP saying that they're going they're not going to require this and everything more because they can diffuse passively back to their buttons. Okay, so this is as these products are not going to use this 80 piece in place, then there is going to be security resiliency of ADP. Okay, so this is what what is going to happen if there is? If this might O'connell membrane conflict into protests. So question me, question business, What would be the effect of on the ph of the mitochondrial matrix of reducing the oxygen supply? Remember that in complex number four we have oxygen. Okay, oxygen is the final electron sector. It means it is going to to accept the electron for in every age of these two. Uh, what is this going to cost the movement of protest to the international space? But what happens when there is no oxygen here? Well, if there is no oxygen here, these are not going to be able to react with oxygen. And they are going to communicate here here here here. Like they are going to connect backwards. Okay, so as they are, they they are accumulating backwards. This elegant diaper change is not going to work and hence there is no there is not going to do leak movement of proteins to enter members and pigs. So they were going to be a high level of proteins here. Okay, because they are going to be retained here and they are not going to be able to move to internet business space. So there is going to be high levels of problems in the matrix. It is going to lead to decrease ph so that ph is going to decrease in the mitochondrial matrix when uh they have reduced oxygen supply question C suppose that the glucose supply to the cell is greatly reduced. So remember that the process of like a weakness it starts with a group of molecules and it produces so part of it molecules. Then each part of it is going to be converted to acetyl coa way and each one is going to enter the Krebs cycle. Okay, in the cycle there's going to be production of one and two carbon dioxides per cycle. Okay, so here you're going to have also To carbon dioxide molecules and also during pyrite oxidation. That means this process here. This is going to be one approach. 1. 1 carbon dioxide molecule. Okay, So also remember that this is about carbohydrates. Okay. But we also have fairy assets and when they are broken down they produce high levels of as a take away and they come in terms of the Krebs cycle. Okay, so if we have low levels or we lose levels of glucose, then there is going to this process here is going to be produced in one of the Krebs cycle is going to be reduced in carbon dioxide molecules. That is going to the kid. It's pretty awesome. Okay, so this is going to be the answer for your question. Remember that Krebs cycle in Pirated oxidation want to see mitochondria? Okay?

But in order to do this question, we talked about a aerobics. Congratulations first let's see the process of like policies. Locos is going to be converted to to pirouette molecules. Okay. And so by the americans. A one part of it here and a lot of fire was here. Now the purpose of like policies is to produce a T. P. Okay, he produces for 80 P. S here here here and around here. Okay. And it uses a D. P two. So like about at this point there is an enzyme called for full fruit Chinese one that is that in the great limiting a step of local of policies federal business opponents of rick policies. Right. And this enzyme is going to be regulated by something. Some substances for example, high levels of GDP and also side rate are going to hear it. This insight. So if they inhibit the same time and then there is going to be at the case great vocal qualities. It means like qualities are going to cure slower or in less amounts. Okay, bye. In contract. In contrast please. Some substances increase the rate of uh of this enzyme And for example we're going to have here only A and P. Okay, another substance called photos 26 by foster but this is not so important here. So am P is going to increase the great of like qualities. This is the photo photo finish one. Okay, now let's talk about another enzyme that is pirouette kindness. Okay, by a pair of kindness acts around here. Yeah, yeah, here we are going to have the inside pirouette pirouette kindness is the last step of of psychology is that converts for final pirouette pirouette and the same thing is also we would like for example, it is inhibited. It's going to be inhibited My substances like 80p high levels of GDP also by as a tile coy too. Okay, it's going to be inhibited by them. Also by Melanie And social services are going to stimulate this paranoid kindness in one of them. These photos propose 1, 6 x four state. There is a metabolite friendly policies like it is account it is about here. Okay, so this is how parallel kindness is regulated. Now, let's see another in time. The society the hydrogen. It's okay, remember that by the way, it is going to be completed. Hacettepe a take away the title coy here too. And then it's like, oh is going to enter that is a cycle. Mhm. Here to T C A cycle. Okay. One metabolite of statistics cycle like around here. Mhm. It's going to be a high suicide rate. Okay. And one end time is going to be isocyanate in the hydrogen lines but it's going to be regulated for example, it is going to be inhibited by high levels of 80 p and in a th but it is going to be stimulated by high levels of in a plus end also a leap. Okay, now, finally, during all obviously respiration, what I want to produce in a th and if A. D. H. Two, okay. That and they are electron of years. And what are they going to do? Well they have to produce a T. P. So they're going to transport electrons. You want to transport elegance to the electron transport chain? Okay, you're not enough. Transport chain has four complexes 123. And for if for complex is okay. And as I said, the purpose of them is to produce high levels of GDP for example any th is going to donate The electrons and complex one. And we hold to be combated too a navy in the oxidized form. And this is going to be used here to produce more in the V. H. In the cycle is going to continue. Okay, so what happens if, for example here when we have high levels of ADP this society, the hydrogen is going to be inhibited in the sense I'm responsible of producing In 88. So there is going to be lower levels of an 80 age. And if there is lower areas of an aviation that is going to be a less commercial to an idea politically the level proper chain is going to slow down. Okay, so this is going this is what is going to happen. Let's see At the question which of the following. That's not a curious I. TP concentrations and agencies with a relative to a D. P. I mean we're going to have high levels of 80 p. Any low levels of ADP let's get the uh the options option races because activity of photo kindness. Uh for kindness. If we have high levels of ADP like here, it is hoped to inhibit the fossil fuel to find one. Why? Because if we have, if this cell has high levels of ADP then we don't require more 80 p. So it is going to inhibit this enzyme to a slowdown glucose. Great policies. So this is correct. But we're looking for the falls for the falls for a false option. Okay. Um option basis, increased activity of pyro it kindness. So when we have high levels of free to be as we can see as we can see here a little bit we are going to inhibit the pirouette kindness. So the option should be a decreased activity of parliament kindness and bus. But this option says increased activity part of kindness. So this is false. Anything. This is the answer. Okay, but let's see the other options too. Option C says decreased activity of a society. The hydrogenation. This is convert because high levels of ADP are going to be here with the I saw the hydrogen. And so this is true. Option D says slow down of the proper chain. And it is also true because for example, I society hydrogen is in order in signs that produced in a th and F radiation. You are going to be inhibited. So there is going to be slow down of the little tramp or change. So this is also true in the correct option is option B.

This question relates to the way that the mitochondrial membrane is going to play a role in the electron transport chain and ultimately 80 p synthesis. So, as we know we have within our mitochondria, we know that the mitochondria itself is going to be, um it will consist of two membranes and outer membrane and inner membrane. But if we look at the inner membrane and we are to draw it out, eso we find that what happens is inside the mitochondria, very interior portion of the mitochondria. We are going to find that a concentration is Grady is going to build up, and specifically, we are going to pump hydrogen, uh, positive hydrogen ions out of the very inner portion of the mitochondria through this inner membrane into the layer that is going to be between the inner membrane and the outer membrane. All right, so we are able to do this the this pumping of the hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the action of the electron transport chain. And we know that we're going to have these, um, three three co enzymes within the inner mitochondrial membrane membrane. We have number one. We have number three and number four, and we also have number two. But this is not going to play a role in the electron transport chain. So essentially, we are going to have electrons move from one electron carrier to the next. And via this movement, we are pumping out hydrogen ions across the membrane. Okay, these air hydrogen ions. Now, the question here is, though, What is going to happen if this inner mitochondrial membrane is going to be more permeable to hydrogen ions? Well, what we have here right now is ah ha Jin ion or Proton ingredient. Where, of course, we're going to have a high concentration of age plus on this side and a low concentration on this side. Now, if this membrane becomes permeable and the hydrogen ions canal move through these slots back into the interior, what happens to our concentrations? Well, they're going to decrease on the outside. So now we're gonna have a low concentration, or it's going to be lower than it would be if there was no permeability, and here it would be higher. So this means that we're going to generate less 80 p. Why is that? Well, if we were to look, um, further along this mitochondrial membrane. If we were to extend it over here, we find that well, we're going to have this 80 Pecent mechanism right here and all of these hydrogen. All of these Hodgins would go to the HP Sendai's and would move down this concentration radiant. This proton concentrations radiant. And this, um, ingredient is going to generate a Proton Motive Force which will generate the 80 p by basically using the Proton Motive Force to take an a D p and kind of crunched together with an extra phosphate. So this produces ATP in the ATP Sendai's. However, we said that this Proton motive force is going to be reduced due to the fact that we now have a lower concentration on the exterior of the intermodal contra membrane. So, um, to reiterate, we're going to generate less 80 p, so the amount of 80 p that we generate is going to be less Okay, so it decreases now, going back to our answer questions. We find that, um, we are not going to generate more 80 p, and we also find that in order to compensate for this, we're going to need to increase our oxygen consumption right, because we're going to need to go through more cycles of cellular respiration in order to produce the same amount of 80 p. Since each cycle is going to produce now a small amount of 80 p. So this means that going back to our answer choices, we find that the correct answer is going to be choice be for.


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