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Ec Am21 Amabov? was inoculated with Escherichia sterile Paper discs Gatrateo wih Amphyl (AMJ; odine IW; Lysol (LY} ad Listerine (L} were placed on the plate prior i...

Question

Ec Am21 Amabov? was inoculated with Escherichia sterile Paper discs Gatrateo wih Amphyl (AMJ; odine IW; Lysol (LY} ad Listerine (L} were placed on the plate prior incubation_To the lef che same 312/0 zocmed slightly; with rulec (mm) easunne Zones inhibirionof inhibitionMeasureNotetnere ere issues with disc movemenr with the disc this has Jmm zcne inhibition

Ec Am 21 Am abov? was inoculated with Escherichia sterile Paper discs Gatrateo wih Amphyl (AMJ; odine IW; Lysol (LY} ad Listerine (L} were placed on the plate prior incubation_ To the lef che same 312/0 zocmed slightly; with rulec (mm) easunne Zones inhibirion of inhibition Measure Note tnere ere issues with disc movemenr with the disc this has Jmm zcne inhibition



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Bacterial growth is inhibited by sulfanilamide and related sulfa drugs, and there is a concomitant accumulation of 5 -aminoimidazole- 4 -carboxamide ribonucleotide. This inhibition is reversed by the addition of $p$ -aminobenzoate. Propose a mechanism for the inhibitory effect of sulfanilamide. (FIGURE CAN'T COPY)

So we're looking at the disk diffusion essay If we have a large zone of inhibition, what does this indicate of the test micro to the chemical disinfectant? So remember for this, we have an aide our plates, we have some chemical disinfectants and then we have these zones around them of inhibition and the larger the zone were more sensitive. The microbe is to that particular suspected. So, if we have a very large sort of inhibition, that indicates sensitivity, the microbe is sensitive to be chemical disinfectant. So one potential use of this is say you have a bacterial infection that is not responding to treatment. You can take a sample of that bacterium and place it and then use this method with various, perhaps antibiotics to see which might actually treat the infection.

So our fill in the blank here has to do with, uh, the zone of information. The disk diffusion passe, right? And so this diffusion essay basically measures how How effective certain disinfecting is against the microorganism in the larger result of inhibition is right. This area here, the more effective right, So the large is one of information indicates and organisms susceptibility. So indicates susceptibility. So the organism is clearly more susceptible to the disinfectant on this disc. Then on this disc, because there's a substantial size difference between the zones of inhibition.

Yeah, mhm. And what's happening with the salmonella is at first stimulates the membrane in order to promote invasion and then suppresses the membrane once the invasion is complete. So there is another set of proteins. There's actually two protein that will help or mediate this process by having their proteins being injected. S o k e. And that's the one that promotes that helps the membrane invasion to happen. And then SPT capital P SPT Capital Pain, which then blocks the effects of s okay, and so that would then sort of be the end part of it where it suppresses the membrane roughly is what they call it. R u F f l i N g Once the invasion is complete. So the question is, First of all, how does the S o p e n s p t p effect? The Mon America G T P A s, which is called capital, are lowercase a C capital R A. C in its active form is what is going to be promoting for the membrane. Roughly. How does this affect the R A C activity? Um, okay. And another question it says in here is How do you suppose the effects of the S, O P E and the S P T P R staggered in time. How does that take place? That they are staggered, that there is one that's happening at one point and then later on in time there's another thing that's happening. But then the answer to the first question that s O P e is, uh what's gonna activate and get the RS seem to get started? And so what we're going to have to have happened here is at because GDP disassociate it's really pretty slowly we're gonna have fall. Hey, some help. I'm doing that GDP to be disassociated from GPAs and then instead of the GDP being there, we'll have GTP, and, uh, volume of the G t. P in place of the GDP is what's the activation? Um, it stabilizes the GTP interactions and then allows for basically the guarani in exchange if you will, and it activates the g t. P. A s in the order for the r i C to do the membrane ruffling Now the S P t. P is called a gap G a p, which stands for octopus Activating. Hello, chief. And what it does is it cleaves off GTP away from the GTs and renders the RSC inactive. And so since the RSC is inactive, then the ruffling of the membrane is inhibited. It stopped. And that's once the invasion has been completed. Honest, that is there. So there needs to be a little bit better in terms of how the S O, p. E and S p p affects the R I C activity and, um affecting this modern American beauty P a s. And I'll explain that in just a minute able to stagger this stuff, how the proteins are able to be centered, it was because of having different rates of breaking down the S okay, a degrades way with much sooner. And then the S P T. P actually sticks around and is broad persisted for a longer period of time after being injected. So the SNP was the one that initiated the promoting of the membrane raffling invasion, and so integrates first, it just simply breaks down faster. Whereas the S P T. P stays around is more persistent for a longer period of time. And it's the one that is, um, blocking the effect of the s O p. A. As well suppress the membrane roughly once the invasion is complete. So then back to the first question, and that first question was Answer it already. So hopefully we have a good idea about how this overall whole entire answer needs to be done.

So this question wants us a just a mechanism of action for sole Faneuil a meid A drug used to treat bacterial infection before antibiotics. Um, and they want us to consider this mechanism of action given that the inhibitory effects of self Anil Abel ID can be reversed. Um, with para amino benzoate. So consider for a moment thestreet feature of full ic acid a precursor to touch a hydro For lead Inter call that Tetra Hydro full eight. The metabolically active worm before, like acid is a carrier for, um, single carbon groups. And it plays an important role, Um, in the formation of hearings. So bacteria synthesize folic acid from, um a para amino beauty uric acid and the remnants of this para amino butyric acid you can still see in the structure of folic acid with the param you know, Ben's OIC acid ring. Um, given the data, we can infer that soul Faneuil lied interferes with folic acid synthesis. Um, likely targeting thebe para amino benzo acid ring, um, and interfering overall with amino acid bio synthesis. Um, we know that soul finally meid targets the para amino benzak acid ring because, um, if so, final mind Where to target this ring treating with, um, Pere amino benzoate restores, um, the bacteria and allows it to continue producing folic acid. So So Faneuil mind interferes with folic acid synthesis.


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