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Parrots in Zambia have recessive mUtation cross-bill"` that causes deformation of tlle beak and difficulty eating: suvey of large. freely interbreeding; popula...

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Parrots in Zambia have recessive mUtation cross-bill"` that causes deformation of tlle beak and difficulty eating: suvey of large. freely interbreeding; population of 3,780 parrots showed 387 which had crossed-bills4) Calculate the frequencies 0f the recessive and dominant alleles in the parrot population:Assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium what would be the percentages of different genotypes in the next generation?Due t0 an invasion of locusts in Zambia in 2018 there w

Parrots in Zambia have recessive mUtation cross-bill"` that causes deformation of tlle beak and difficulty eating: suvey of large. freely interbreeding; population of 3,780 parrots showed 387 which had crossed-bills 4) Calculate the frequencies 0f the recessive and dominant alleles in the parrot population: Assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium what would be the percentages of different genotypes in the next generation? Due t0 an invasion of locusts in Zambia in 2018 there was widespread shortage of food and after tle invasion significant decrease was observed in the parrot population from 5.723 in 2018 to 5.139 in 2019. with none of the Suviving parrots having cross-bills Confirm by calculation that this loss corresponded to starvation of parrots with cross-bill phenotype.



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In parakeets, two autosomal genes that are located on different chromosomes control the production of feather pigment. Gene $B$ codes for an enzyme that is required for the synthesis of a blue pigment, and gene $Y$ codes for an enzyme required for the synthesis of a yellow pigment. Green results from a mixture of yellow and blue pigments, and recessive mutations that prevent production of either pigment are known for both genes. Suppose that a breeder has two green parakeets and mates them. The offspring are green, blue, yellow, and albino (unpigmented). Based on this observation, what are the genotypes of the green parents? What genotypes give each color in the offspring? What fraction of the total progeny should exhibit each type of color?

Question, and I value to look at the table as we go through this. I'm not gonna redraw the table. I'm just gonna go through this very quickly. Um, and, uh, make a few comments and a few notes as we go along the way here. But there's a lot to cover. So, um, when you look at these questions, you have to write whether they're in Hardy Weinberg or not. So the 1st 1 you could see everybody has a big A alil. So P is one. Hugh is zero. So there it's already where? Equilibrium? Because you wouldn't expect there to be any headers, I guess. Er, almost like it's recessive. Um, for the 2nd 1 the answer's no. It's non in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And the reason is that there headers, I guess turn, you'd expect when they, uh, mate and have offspring that some of those offspring would be. Homer Side gets for three answers. Yes, it is in hardy Wonder equilibrium and again, for the same reason is Number one is for four. It's not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and you can simply do the basic math year to get P and Q. It's a little bit tedious, but not terrible for five. Again, not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And if you look at those numbers, we would expect there to be more headers. I goods. And we're not getting that. Um, so again, these numbers here with people, he 375 and 0.6 to 5. All right, uh, for six. Um, this was also yes. As I lose track on my notes, this one was in Hardy Weinberg younger. And and you can win in their in equilibrium All you have to do to get the peace accused Take the square root of, ah, say the on the percentage proportion of him is, I guess, recesses. That'll give you Q And then you could just solve for P. So that's pretty straightforward. For seven. This is not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. You look at it. It's just such a strange set of numbers. I'm something is going on, um, and solving for it, you're gonna have half the Leo's will be, Uh ah. Big A and half will be little a eight is. Yes, it isn't Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And again, it's easy when there are anywhere in your columbarium because you just have to take the square root. Let's say the number of from his, I guess in proportion of home a psychic processes to get the values, um, nine is yes, and it's simply the reverse of the number eight. So that's pretty straightforward. And then, finally, Number 10 has a tiny numbers involved with it, but it isn't Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and that's plain 993 and playing 007 So that's a and B here. And in the questions, um, see is asking about unquestioned six. Um, remember the formulas here, and this is the mutation over selection formula of the balance. And then the selection coefficient equation, which is s equals one minus w and were given mu is five times 10 to the nine s six. So that's the mutation rate. And then we can solve for Q. Um, because where we have Q from the the questions were 4.9 times 10 to the minus fifth. Something like that, um, that we just have to play the sort of it equations in. That's you square. So, um so if we use this equation here, we have 4.9 times 10 to the minus fifth equals the mutation rate, which is five times 10 to the minus six. All right, it by s. And so if we saw for s, we get a value of 102 So there's some decker mint. There is selection acting against this Leo, and then we're just unplug s into this equation here. So, um, point 0.102 equals one minus w. And again, this is this equation here I'm using. Ah, And if we saw for W, we get 0.898 So that what we were shooting for in this question, and then finally d um, there's a little bit tedious, uh, and were given values or fitness of one. And then for the headers I goat. Well, you was 0.8 and then for the homeless, I guess. Recess, Ivo, it's 0.6. Um, and we're interested in trying to calculate p crime. That is the frequency of P and the following generation. Um, so they're different ways to do this, but I'm gonna use that to formula approach. First, I'm gonna calculate average fitness, and this is a formula that's in the textbook where you have P squared names. The Fitness of the Homicide, its dominant plus two p Q and the fitness of the Headers. I Go plus Q squared and the fitness of the home is that it's recessive and these air just frequencies cow times, a fitness values. And of course, that's going to give you your average fitness. And so if you plunge these numbers in and for time reasons, uh, I'm not going to, um, you end up with a value of 0.8, right? So this number goes here and then for peace squared, remember that will just be 0.5 and shoes squared would between five squared and those air those point fires come from the table about. So the average fitness is gonna re 0.8 and then we're going to use in that value, which we needed in our second equation. And again, this is from the textbook Ah, where you multiply the fitness of the homeless. I guess Tom meant going to pee and the fitness of the headers I go and divided by the average fitness that we just calculated. So keep prime equals 0.5, and again, that's from the table above, and we want to play all that by 0.5 times one. So that was the fitness of W. A. A. That's appear, plus Q. Just also 0.5, and to fitness of the um, header is I go. And that's 0.8. That's appear. And then if we divide that by the average fitness, which we just calculated his 0.8 a 0.8 and we do that math, then we get a P prime value or the P and the next generation of 25 6 I think the question asked us What the value for Q. Is that people cubicles one. We know that then the Q prime value will be zero point for for so ah, long question with a lot of work involved.

Mhm. Let us complete the following sentence. If there is a continuous drought and large tough seeds become the steady diet of large, broad beaked birds due to natural selection blank. So now let us go back and reread our sentence and completed. If there is a continuous drought and large tough seeds become the steady diet of large, broad beaked birds due to natural selection, there will be more birds with small thin beaks dying and more birds with large, broad beak, surviving differential reproduction of birds with large broad beaks will result in subsequent generations having a higher percentage of birds with large broad beaks. Yeah. Mhm.

The usual question. We have two populations and colorblind. This is frequent in both of them and call them A and B just because I have to call them something all in one into if you want. And they both consists of 1000 people when they're going to come together in a minute. And in population a the frequency of the little see color blind missile deal, which we will call queue, uh is 0.1. And this frequency of the same a Leo and Population two or B is 0.3. All right, so far, so good. Um, now the two populations, they're going to come together through some kind of migration event and end up being one big population of 2000 people and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium with apart going to apply in this whole situation. So now, instead of heading to populations, we have one big happy population and were asked to figure out what the frequency of color blindness is in males and females in this new population. Now, remember that colorblindness is an excellently. Also, it's gonna show up on the X chromosome. Males then only need to have one copy of it e mails, of course, need to have two copies of it. You expect, all right, and so we don't need to calculate the frequency of Q in the new population. So how do we do that? Well, it's pretty straight for it. If you remember that we have exactly 1000 individuals of each. We don't worry about proportions or anything like that. So Q new, which I'm gonna put up here. It's simply going to the average of the old to use, right, so it's 1/2 I'm 0.10 plus 0.30 so that's were just calculating the average of that. And so, of course, that works out to be 0.20 Alright, so cue new is 0.2. So that's the value of Q in this new population. So for males, remember that males leaning toe one copy of yuletide in order to have color blindness. So for males que alone 0.2 is the frequency of color blindness in males in females. Of course, we now have to assume the populations and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium females need to copy. Serving is Q squared so that 0.2 squared and thats zero point that's unequal. Sign plain 04 And so that's the frequency of color, blindness and female. So 4% or points euro for are going to be color blind on females and 0.2% or 0.2 or 20% are getting feller blinded males.

Hey, the crossover between bite and shrunken are these fools Since the one is one is to one is to one ratio is not seen These jeans linked now the cross would between shrunken Andi vax e Is this on? Since again this issue is not seen, all of these genes are linked Similarly, this is the cross over between white Andi vaccine. So since the ones to one is to one is to wonder, issue is not seen. Therefore, these genes are also linked. Now the cross over between white on a shrunken I it's plus plainness w bless minus that is 113 plus four and iss ISS JetBlue taboo that is 116 plus two which makes an equal total off 230 died on the cross Over between shrunken and vax e are s plus negative vie pless Negative that is 626 plus food and s is by that is 601 blessed to which makes a total off 1233 So therefore jean distance can be digit mind between white and shrunken as 100% off one all's due to D five, divided by six 1007 100 eat that is 3.5 map unit on the gene. Distance off, shrunken and waxy can be calculated by 100% off. 1233 divided by 6708 that is 18.38 map unit. Now the mad distance is sure like white, shrunken and vax e. On the distance between fight and shrunken will be 3.5 map unit and the distance between shrunken and vax even be 18 4.4 map unit. Now the elite arrangement on the chromosome off the triple hate rose I got used in the test cross will be is less is W plus W by plus by in due ISS ISS w w Bye bye on the in. Diffidence can be calculated as one minus observed double cross. Google's divided by expected Devil Cross overs that is one minus six, divided by zero point 035 in the U 0.1 age food into 6708 which needs


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