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Convert TPP to the carbanion form: Use the lone pair tool and ion tool to add or remove lone electron pairs and charges where needed. Do not alter R2 or R3_Alali wi...

Question

Convert TPP to the carbanion form: Use the lone pair tool and ion tool to add or remove lone electron pairs and charges where needed. Do not alter R2 or R3_Alali wimn "IS; 090 ) < * 0 0J 0, + + 2Help44~N 0R31 [J Q O0 0 0

Convert TPP to the carbanion form: Use the lone pair tool and ion tool to add or remove lone electron pairs and charges where needed. Do not alter R2 or R3_ Alali wimn "IS; 090 ) < * 0 0J 0, + + 2 Help 44 ~ N 0 R3 1 [J Q O0 0 0



Answers

Draw the missing lone-pair electrons and assign the missing formal charges for the following:

Here we are continuing to draw out some lower structures. So firstly phosphorus oxygen, oxygen, oxygen and another oxygen, where they all have three line powers here, apart from one of them has a double bond. And so we have three miners charge. And of course we can have resonance using any three of these formal negative charges. So that means that we've got three different forms of resonance. Well, overall we have three minus charge on the species. Next we've got C N minus. So we've got carbon, we can have a triple bond to the nitrogen where we need a formal negative charge on the carbon to have it with a full lone pair. Next we have also 3 to-. So we have a sofa where the double bond oxygen and then we've got to oxygen's that have minus charges that give us our two minus. And again here you can see that we will have resonance because we have negative charges on the oxygen's. We've got resonance from two different positions that will take place in separate events, and they will have a knock on effect with this double bond. Next we have cielo to minus. So what we have is chlorine, double bond oxygen, single bond oxygen too long pairs on the chlorine. The oxygen with the single bond has a formal negative charge, and here we have resonance that can bounce between the two oxygen's.

Cast syriza's aimed covering some off the chemistry basics. So starting with subjects such as periodic trends and chemical properties, all of which underpins the more advanced levels of chemistry. So this podcast we're looking thio add any missing unshared electron pairs and then we're using some arrows to shift electrons. So essentially we're looking at resonant structures here. So in the fast one, there are no missing electrons. So to write the president structures, we can move the electron pair from the double bond to the oxygen atom to this would now make the carbon have a formal positive charge, because only has three bonds. The oxygen is that resonant structure has no charge, so we can draw that out. Here we have a shift and electron density in the direction off the arrowhead. Now we just have a single bond where the carbon has thief formal positive charge now, and our oxygen has two lone pairs, so we can move on to the next example now. So again, there's no missing and shared electron pairs so we can get to more resonant structures. By moving the electron power from the adjacent double bond, we can move to see the left or right, so we'll just draw out one of them pants. So say we have the starting structure. Former positive charge. Hydrogen, hydrogen. We can move this double bond. Remember, the electron density moves in the direction off the arrowhead. Just double bond remains unchanged. You know, have a double bond here on our formal positive charge is now on this carbon. So the next example. So again, we've got no missing on Chad Electron pairs were drawing up some residents structures. So we will straw. Yeah, with our starting structure. Former positive charge. We can move this double bond, which moves the double bond as well as the formal positive charge for more positive charged assets here. Moving on to the next Ron again. There's no missing electrons. We can draw some residents structures with the electron path from the borough mean because romaine has to relearn past group seven. So informing one double bond, it has a bullock tap. So in pushing electron density onto the single bond between roaming and carbon, that has a knock on effect to the double bond. So now we have a doubly bound bro meet with a formal positive charge to lone pairs. Formal negative charge on this carbon on two protons. So the next structure, we've got quite a few residents structures, and all we're doing is moving the double bond around. It was just Ra one example here, so we get the picture. So we've got an aromatic two protons on a formal positive charge so we can take this electron density, Dump it here, and we will have a resident structure. We have a double bond formal positive charge here on the other two. Double bonds remain unchanged. So now what we would do is we would see this double bond move, and then our formal positive charge would shift right around the aromatic ring until we get all the way back to where we started. We have two more here. So there's two missing injured pairs. Electrons aren't drawn on our oxygen, so we'll add them on here, and then we'll look at a resident structure. We have a formal negative charge. Yeah, on dso we add our own pairs onto oxygen. Move the electron density in the direction of the arrowhead. Oxygen takes on a formal negative charge. Now we have and in a like Okay, so the next one we have, we need to throw the two missing injured has electrons on the sulfur atom. And then we'll look at resonance to have two protons, former positive charge. So for two lone pairs, like oxygen, because it's also group six. Now, we can don't want off the loan pass, and so far to get rid off this positive charge in the carbon, and instead, it will shift to the sofa. Okay, so this is the very last example here. So we draw the molecule and the unshared electron pairs on oxygen. So after doing so, we can look at the president's structure. So this last example here in this corner got a missile positive. So you're a formal negative. So we dumped the electron density in the direction of the arrowhead as a knock on effect. This oxygen that did have a single bond in a formal negative charges now doubly bound to on nitrogen. And that completes all of our examples

To calculate formal charge. It is equal to the number of valence electrons. Subtract half the number of bonding electrons. Subtract the number of non bonding electrons. Let's calculate the formal charge for each atom for a in the Cyan eight iron sign. Eight. Iron this iron here to calculate the formal charge of nitrogen, we'll abbreviate FC nitrogen has five billion electrons, minus number of bonding. Electrons is four, and the number of non bonding electrons is for the formal charge on nitrogen is equal to minus one carbon. The formal charge Carbon has four valence electrons, minus half the number of bonding electrons. There is zero non bonding electrons. The formal charge for carbon works out to zero and for oxygen. On the right hand side, the formal charge is equal to oxygen. Here has six films. Electrons has four bonding electrons for non bonding electrons in the formal charge of oxygen works out to be zero. So if we include these in the molecule, nitrogen has a formal treasure of minus one. Carbon zero Oxygen zero. Mhm. Now let's calculate the formal charge in the ozone molecule a lone pairs in, so we'll first start with the oxygen on the left formal charge. Oxygen has six valence electrons, two bonding. Six. Non bonding formal charge works out to be minus one for the oxygen in the middle. Formal charges equal to six minus half, and we have six bonding electrons to non bonding. The formal charge works out to be plus one and for the oxygen on the far right. Formal charges equal six minus half number of bonding electrons when it's non bonding electrons and the formal charge here works out to be zero, so the formal charge would be minus one plus one and zero for the ozone molecule.

Hey, guys. So in this question were given the reaction between ah, try and metal Boraine and this cyclo ether and were asked to, um, use curved arrows to denote the movement of electrons to get from our reactant stew our product that is here. So the first thing I'm going to do is I'm going Teoh, identify my nuclear files and my Electra files. So since oxygen here, how some extra electrons? I'm going to call this my nuclear file. And that automatically makes this, um, compound my electric file since, um, Boron can hold some. Ah, were electrons in its empty orbital's two in a, um, right. My mechanism. I can take two electrons from my oxygen and use a double sided arrow to make a bond with boring or the my borough on Adam right here. So when I do that, I yield this compound right here and in the textbook. It's not shown, but we actually have some charges. So since this boron has four bonds, its charge is going to be negative according to our formal charge calculation, and this oxygen is going to have a positive charge from our formal charge calculation. So this is our movement of electrons for this mechanism and reaction


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