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What are the assumptions being made when describing chimpanzees and bonobos aS different species, and why, when and where did their lineages diverge ?How do "P...

Question

What are the assumptions being made when describing chimpanzees and bonobos aS different species, and why, when and where did their lineages diverge ?How do "Platyrrhini" and "Catarrhini" differ in regard to their taxonomy, physical differences; evolution, and behaviour?

What are the assumptions being made when describing chimpanzees and bonobos aS different species, and why, when and where did their lineages diverge ? How do "Platyrrhini" and "Catarrhini" differ in regard to their taxonomy, physical differences; evolution, and behaviour?



Answers

How similar are the genomes of humans and chimpanzees? What genetic changes might be responsible for the large differences in the anatomy, physiology, and behavior of humans and chimpanzees?

We're looking at a hypothesis that states would be difference between humans and chimpanzees is in the differences in gene regulation. We also have a study showing. But the overall patterns of gene expression are similar in bolivar and blood, but very different in the brain. Does this support the hypothesis? Well, we have to look at where humans and chimps are different. We would expect our blood and livers to be very similar, So blood and lovers are very similar between chimps and humans. But our brains are very different. Brains difference based on the cognitive differences between chimps and humans. So this micro array shows the same pattern. But the blood and liver have very similar patterns of gene expression. But there for a very striking differences in the room, so micro arrays reflects this.

For this question, we're asked A since we have found out the gene expression in liver and blood are similar between humans and chimpanzees. But there's significant difference in the gen X Russian off the brain. And what would we infer from this result? And after this chapter, we should know that we can expect that delivers and the blood of chimps and humans would function similarly since they have a similar expression of genes and maybe similar genes, and that would lead back to our definition of Kamala Ji. And since there's a strong difference occurring brain function, we would predict dot the chimp and human brains are different because the gene expression is very different and certain genes are turned on and turn off at different times and expressed at different times. Since we have micro array data to support that, so we can infirm and infer dot the brain function is significantly different or substantially different, while delivering blood functioning might be more similar,

Hello, today, we're talking about different factors revealing evolution. So when evolution was first discovered, not discovered, but first understood by the general public kind of became like a big deal. Everybody made jokes about, let you think We came from monkeys. Even today, especially in like Southern uh, United States. There's some religious ties to it, basically. People misunderstand monkey is not the same thing as like a primate in general. Also, they don't understand how file a genetic trees work, right? We're having branches with apologetic trees and then off of our file a genetic trees, we're gonna have more branches and just because something is alive at the same time point, okay, does not mean let's say this is a human and this is a chip. That doesn't mean that they're directly related. They could have some thai earlier down the line here and humans and chimps are both existing now and they're kind of drastically different. If you think about it, I would really say humans don't go here, they would go like, You know, 90 whatever branches down here, and we don't even know how all of it works. We have not filled in all the different file, a genetic tree branches, We don't know what they all are. And over time science will do its best, just like it always does to try to figure it out. So when you have a human tramp, although one seems more primitive, okay to us, because we're humans, we're gonna sit there and go, okay, that must be the earlier things. That's not really true. They just kind of went in different directions. Chimps are a lot, they are very strong, especially for their size, they're shorter or they're not nearly as bipedal. They have to use their knuckles, they don't really have that matt. Uh, they don't really have as developed as a, like a spinal cord process or basically their hips are turned in a little, they're just not going to be a exactly ancestor of us because they're a little bit more complicated and saying that something just because it isn't the same of us is more ancestry or old isn't the case whatsoever. Just different environments, select for different things and both of us can exist at the same time without us being the same. So human and chants, although they might look similar, are not going to be from the same ancestor and they're not going to be chance or humans, there is going to be a common ancestor here. Um, but it's not going to be that and it's not really asking you to know what it is. It's just asking and figure out, is it one or the other, like chimps come from humans know did humans come from chimps? No, but we know they're related because they're both primates and they're kind of similar in that they have a lot of humanoid characteristics. So the answer is neither and our answer is why is they're not directly wait or from each other? The point of this question is to kind of understand that just because animals are slightly similar, does not mean that they are directly related. Kind of like how people think, oh, lions and tigers, you look kind of similar. One must have come before the other and created. That's not really the case. They're in different areas. So just because something is slightly similar does not mean that one is the ancestor for the other have a great day, goodbye.

When looking at a file a genetic tree that distinguishes humans and other apes species. One can see that when looking at a file a genetic tree by tracing it lower down the stems or is lower down the branches you will see commonly referred to as M M R C A, which stands for most recent common ancestor. Basically, what this implies is just that that that is the most recent common ancestor shared between two species. And upon that point in this case here there is a divergence in humans, chimpanzees and bonobos. So in this case, this would be the most recent common ancestor found right there around the five million years ago. That would be the most recent common ancestor for chimpanzees and humans. So this shows that humans and chimpanzees, although different species, similar species in a way they did evolve from a common ancestor that could be seen in this illustration below


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