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Following processes EXCEPT: 37. GTP plays a role in all of the materials through nuclear pores transport of formation of the SNARE complex polymerization - tubulin ...

Question

Following processes EXCEPT: 37. GTP plays a role in all of the materials through nuclear pores transport of formation of the SNARE complex polymerization - tubulin polymerization of actin the membrane of coated vesicles from gl release

following processes EXCEPT: 37. GTP plays a role in all of the materials through nuclear pores transport of formation of the SNARE complex polymerization - tubulin polymerization of actin the membrane of coated vesicles from gl release



Answers

Mitochondrial ribosomes manufacture 13 proteins, all of which are components of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Propose an explanation why the peptide exit tunnel of the mitoribosome is lined with hydrophobic groups rather than hydrophilic groups, as in a cytosplasmic ribosome.

Video. We're going to be talking about a cellular process called trans psychosis. What this process is is it's the movement of a macro molecule from one side of a cell, right? The extra seller environment of a cell to the other side of the cell. And this can occur in both directions. So I've drawn a cell right here where we have the typical surface. So I like to think of that as just the top of a cell. If you were to take a cross section of a piece of tissue and then you would see the optical surface at the top which is surrounded by aluminium. Right? So an extra seller um environment. And then we have the other side which is the basil lateral surface which is the bottom right Basu. And then this is this side is usually connected. The cells are connected to another layer of cells, right connective tissue. So cells like comprised connective tissue. And so how really this process works of Transito sis. Right. Let's say that we're going in one direction from the optical surface to the basal lateral surface. So we're going from this direction, right, let's say that we want to transport a a protein an antibody, right? Um so many different pieces of proteins together. So what we what we would do is we would first endo santos, right? The whatever we want to take into the cell, right, we're going to form a vesicles. So this this process is called endo santos is so the anti body is going to be contained within that bicycle and Jessica was gonna form when when a coded pit. So these are just proteins that assist in the formation of the bicycle. It's going to form this pit and then this is gonna end up photos this vesicles. So this is endo psychosis. So after we make the vesicles, that bicycle is going to be transported, I'm just throwing it here for simplification purposes, but it's a lot more complex than this, many steps involved and the vehicle is going to be moved through the cell and then it's going to act suicide toes. So we're going to we're gonna form this other pit right in the process of induce xO psychosis and then that antibody is going to be released on the other side. So the, the use of this is, we we can then transport right these molecules across a layer of tissue and a layer of epithelial tissue commonly. And it's not going to disrupt any of the the composition of the cellular environ extrasolar environments right on either side. But we can then transport whatever macro molecules we want to get from one side to the other. And so this process is extremely important, and particularly in this direction, uh from the ankle to the basal lateral side, we call this absorptive, trains trains psychosis

The central dogma of biology states that the genetic code from D. N a right the A T GS and sees this code is used to create a middleman messenger or in a inside of the cells nucleus. And this messenger RNA leaves the cell's nucleus and is used to synthesize protein inside the cell but outside of cell's nucleus. So we're talking about the flow genetic information through different organelles in the cell. There is a specific order in which genetic information flows to make a protein. So first I'll make a quick list and then do a quick sketch of what this looks like. So the first place that will start with the path of DNA to our native protein would be, of course, the nucleus. And then we will see in a moment how DNA is transcribed in a messenger are in a and that messenger are in a needs to leave the cell's nucleus through a nuclear pore. That would be the next spot, all right, and then still within the cell. But outside of the nucleus, then, ah, the the ribosomes will be utilized for protein synthesis. Okay, so remember Ribosomes stud, the rough e r the rough endo plastic particular, Um and there's also free ribosomes in the cell. So all right, those separately. The whole part purpose of ribosomes is protein synthesis, which is known as translation. And then this message can get carried on as well through the end of membrane system to reach the Golgi apparatus as well. All right, so let's draw a big sell. Big sell here within the cell, of course, is the nucleus. So this will be the nucleus. And, of course, within the nucleus is DNA will make this blue DNA is transcribed into messenger are in a So make that red. Okay, And you're learning about that process. So DNA to messenger or in a and this happens in a particular order, right will draw the arrow indicating that way. And so the red is messenger are in a right, and so this is slightly different. The DNA, the genetic code is, ah, a little bit different message. But now this message needs to be passed along and needs to leave the nucleus. And so the messenger, or in a will, then exit the nucleus through. I'm gonna draw some polka dots to represent nuclear pores. Okay, so the transcribed messenger RNA leaves the nucleus via the nuclear pore and now is out here in the cell, in the cell cytoplasm where translation occurs. Now, at this point, the messenger may the messenger. Our name may encounter the rough er which is dotted with ribosomes. So the ref er is this green blob and the ribosomes are these little black polka dots or free ribosomes are also in the cell. Okay, so floating around these little Sprinkles, black Sprinkles are free. Ribosomes. But for our purposes, let's assume the messenger are in a We'll be interacting with the rough E r. Okay, so we're over here in the rough. Er will have our messenger or in a right here. In that messenger, RNA binds to Arribas OEM where it will be translated into protein. Okay, so, through the process of translation which we won't draw, go into detail here through translation will have a new molecule, but synthesized the protein which I'll draw as a black squiggle. Okay, so here's the flow of information. So protein is produced. Ah, but it needs to leave the rough er via best ical or transport vesicles. And so I'll draw this as a green bubble. Say this is a transport vesicles that contains the the protein that has just been synthesized. And now this transport vesicles can move on to through the smooth e r and also through other organelles. So let's say the smooth e. R is here, and we can also draw in the Golgi apparatus would be farther away from the nucleus, okay? And so this physical can travel on this way in the flow of information via via the protein produced can act on other organelles and other molecules in the cell. In this way, eventually, it might even leave the cell to act on other parts of the organism's body via vesicles in this way.

How are proteins moved through the cell? We're going to start off at the end of plastic particular. Then you end a plastic Ridiculous, which is continuous with the nuclear membrane, is covered with lots of ribosomes. Riva zones are little units of or in a where proteins are manufactured. And as these proteins are manufactured, this Riva zone is going to package these proteins and little bubbles of membrane, and those packets will travel to the next structure, which is the Golgi of the Golgi is a Siris of relatively flattened sacks of membrane. And what a curse here is that the membrane that the proteins air surrounded by as well as the proteins themselves are slightly modified, and then ultimately they will be repackaged in the form of what we call a Golgi vesicles. And this vesicles contains the proteins, and it is then going to travel towards and finally fuse with the membrane of the cell, where it will release these proteins into the matrix


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