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A single crossover during tetrad formation occurs in prophase | of meiosis in a reciprocal translocation of two nonhomologous chromosomes. Explain the consequence(s...

Question

A single crossover during tetrad formation occurs in prophase | of meiosis in a reciprocal translocation of two nonhomologous chromosomes. Explain the consequence(s) of this. (20 points)

A single crossover during tetrad formation occurs in prophase | of meiosis in a reciprocal translocation of two nonhomologous chromosomes. Explain the consequence(s) of this. (20 points)



Answers

Explain how the random alignment of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I contributes to variation in gametes produced by meiosis.

So the question asks how the homologous chromosomes aligning at the amount of faceplate contribute to gammy Variation by my oh sis. And this is best represented visually and cell with two chromosomes, um, one larger chromosome and one smaller chromosome. And because the cells undergoing bio sis are deployed, they have two copies of each chromosome, um, one, which is a pink paternal inherited maternally inherited copy of the chromosome, and one which is a green maternally inherited copy of the chromosome. And this is true for both the larger and smaller chromosomes. Um, and depending on how the chromosomes a line at the meta phase plate, different arrangements of the chromosomes, um, can be pulled into the daughter cells following my ASUs one, which subsequently affect the gammy it's produced in my house is too. So, for example, in arrangement, one of the chromosomes, um, the peril copy lines up such that all paternal copies of the larger and smaller chromosome are in the left side, and all copies of the all material copies of both larger and smaller chromosome are lined on the um, right side is what happens is that the daughter cells split peas, chromosomes, such that they only have only paternal copies of the chromosomes or only maternal copies. Um, and because they only have one copy one parental copy of each chromosome. This effects the chromosomes which enter the GAM eat in GAMUT arrangement won both the large and small chromosome inherited in the gannets are both the paternal copy and in Gambia arrangement to both the larger and smaller chromosome. Inherited by the gametes are the maternal copy, Um, in arrangement to the homologous chromosomes are separated in bio sis one such that the daughter cells only have one maternal copy of one chromosome, um, and one paternal copy of the other chromosome, and it differs between the two of them. You can see that this one has a large paternal copy of the chromosome and a small maternal copy, and it is the opposite in the second daughter. So So this produces gametes with a mix of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Um, and they are in different arrangements because, as you can see, an arrangement. Three. The large chromosome is paternal e inherited, um, in both of them, whilst the smaller is maternally inherited. But it is the opposite end. Gammy arrangement for where large chromosome is maternally inherited. Um, and thes smaller chromosome is maternally inherited and looking. How these two different arrangements can lead to four different gammy combinations. You can see how the alignment at the meta phase plate is important to contributing to gammy variations.

So on a chromosome Duplication. This is the first. This is so the application process. This is one promotional signage E Isn't that segment be prisoner signature? You see? Seven is And this comes once a year E no. In one case, there is the chromosome duplication. Same case where there is promotion. Multiplication. What happens is that the sick segment off? They just duplicates. So this is the next bosom in this case. See the e the duplicate. See, De Yeah. Hey, the duplicate And again that is okay, Jeanne, This ends. So basically this these act different chromosomes and in this case, the chromosome CD as undergoing duplication.

Several events happened happened during the profits. One of my oh, sis. So first of all, um, the yellow cylinders around this diagram over here are called, um centrism center. Some replicates itself join interface. So in pro face one, you have to centrism. And they moved towards the opposite pole of decell, and eventually they will grow. These are organized this black line, which are the my tonics been, though, and they were actually catch the chromosome, um, and then separate them to opposite pole through the NFS to separate the DNA. Um, so also, if you look at the cell carefully, there are at your full chromosome inside of the nuclear's, which will be gradually breaking down, Um, at the profess one. And they're too large. Chromosome one purple and one blue and and the other small too small. 11 orange and one red. And, ah, the chromosome was the same size. They're actually called harmonicas chromosome. So home, uh, good chromosomes. So these two chromosome essentially are caught a pair they actually contain asem gene, and their central mirrors are the same position that have same lance and one up. And while cop is from Mom the other companies Fund s a paternal and maternal and paternal. So a difference. See, there are two pairs of homologous chromosome in the cell at this point. And, um, the homologous chromosomes sometimes actually has certain event called a crossing over. Or is the Let's look at the each chromosome closely. So, as you can see, the each criminal looks like X. What does it look like? X? Because DNA replication happens during s face of interface. So each problem has two copies, and they are called sister committed towards each other. So the blue and blue, purple on purple, their sister comet, it's towards each other now. They're also known sister Primitives. So, for example, on the Aero had indicated that the bull chromosome work versus the purple promise. Um, there are none. Sister plummeted. So one cup is from among the other companies from that, they have different genetic composition. All right, so as I just mentioned, there is a, um and then called crossing over happens. So the homologous chromosome actually makes pairs. So blue pair was purple. Rap hair was orange and they formed this kind asthma structure. So pretty much the two harmonicas comes on the getting really close to each other. And there is a DNA arming swapping process, or I was crossing over a recombination process going on. And so the paternal Aaliyah and maternal or Leo sort of exchange, and then they actually create a new combination of genetic diversity. So this is a very unique feature that happens Onley in profits, one of my oh, sis. So obviously, if we go back to our question on which of the following events does not Kardashian profits, one of my houses is actually occur because we just talk about the my topic spindle forms I'm during in my profits one of my houses and homologous pairs of chromosomes online and a MegaFest um played. This is not true, because profits one, um, the harmonica chromosome they are actually do not line up in the middle of the cell. So be is no. Right now See homologous crimes come very close together. This is true because we were talking about eq I asthma. So that means the necessary committed of the on harmonicas hair actually come together to form the structure to exchange your genetic content. No, um, de crossing over occurs between sister comic vomited. And this is again wrong because the genetic are crossing over occurs between sister prom. It'd so both being deal wrong. And then chromosomes dick condensed. And this is correct because during profits, one Crumitie become condensed into chromosomes.


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