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A TLC platc has twp sides , clear side and rough side wth solid caatings. (a) What two chemicals are most typically used as the solid coatings (the stationary phase...

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A TLC platc has twp sides , clear side and rough side wth solid caatings. (a) What two chemicals are most typically used as the solid coatings (the stationary phase) (0) What is the mobile phase ad its purpose?One of the steps involved running TLC analysis spot samples on the prate. dull pencil used to gently mark the locations of the spots (a) Why should an ink pen rot be used? () Wy should the spots be kept as small as possible?After the samples are spolted, the plate be "developod"

A TLC platc has twp sides , clear side and rough side wth solid caatings. (a) What two chemicals are most typically used as the solid coatings (the stationary phase) (0) What is the mobile phase ad its purpose? One of the steps involved running TLC analysis spot samples on the prate. dull pencil used to gently mark the locations of the spots (a) Why should an ink pen rot be used? () Wy should the spots be kept as small as possible? After the samples are spolted, the plate be "developod" using developing solvent . The amount ol solvent is important (a) What is the pronlem wilh too much or too little solvent? (b) pece of filter paper is also inserted Into the developing chamber keep the chamber saturated vath the solvent vapor Wnat does achieve? while the plate the solvent (it is being developed); the analyte molecules are attracted the TLC coating (whte solid) but the solvent molecules are moving up by capillary action trying to Tpush" the analyte molecules Tn2 Tpush" the solvent [ealed its polarity We wll use mxture uowalos powver hexanes and ethyl acetate a5 our developing solvent (a) What functional groups ethyl acetale ~ (b) Hexanes are non-polar while moderately polar What property the sclvent good aceta e measurement of its polarity ? Provide ethyt numencal vaues substantiate your answet



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Serine (Ser, molecular weight $=105.1 \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{mol}$ ) is a nonessential aminoacid (see Footnote 16 ) produced by fermentation. As with many other fermentation products, substantial downstream processing is required to meet specifications on product purity. Crystallization from an aqueous solution is useful in meeting those specifications. The following table shows how serine solubility in water varies with temperature:(a) Prepare a plot of solubility as a function of temperature that can be used for interpolation. (b) An aqueous solution of serine containing 60 g $\operatorname{Ser} / 100$ g $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ is pumped into a batch cooling crystallizer, and the temperature is reduced slowly to $10^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$, causing the formation of crystals of the monohydrated salt Ser. $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$. Using the given solubility data, estimate the mass of crystals produced per unit mass of feed solution and the fraction of serine fed that is recovered as crystalline product.(c) The molecular structure of serine makes it much more hydrophilic than other amino acids, and therefore its solubility is about an order of magnitude greater than that of most other amino acids. The addition of methanol to reduce the solubility in the solution has been suggested. Experimental data show that the solubility of Ser as a function of methanol content is given by the correlation $S / S_{0}=\exp \left(-4.8 x_{\mathrm{M}}\right)$ where $x_{\mathrm{M}}$ is the mass fraction of methanol in a methanol-water solvent mixture, $S_{0}$ (g/g solvent) is serine solubility in water at a given temperature, and $S$ is the solubility in the methanol-water solvent.In an alternative to the processing scheme described in Part (b), sufficient methanol is added to the crystallizer after it has reached $10^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ to produce a final solution that has a methanol-to-water mass ratio of $55: 45,$ and the resulting system is allowed to come to equilibrium. Estimate the mass of crystals produced per unit mass of feed solution and the fraction of serine fed that is recovered as crystalline product.(d) Explain why serine is more hydrophilic than most other amino acids.(e) Sketch a flowchart for a process in which the methanol fed to the crystallizer in Part (c) is recycled, and suggest why this design might be preferable to the one without recycle.

The first thing we're taking a look at here is the mall. A flow rate of dry air and converting it into mole into units of moles per hour. So we have n dot air people to 7.1 times 10 to the five MPH. So according to our flow chart, we have five nuns. We have Cerro degrees off freedom moving on to the second part that we have here. We can cover the volumetric flow rate that is B Doc does it to 2.3 times 10 to the four. I mean, is cute. Our now we can also calculate the relative humidity. It is 2.8% on week most of the time and required temperature off. In Latin. We want 81 degrees C and so small droplets. Do you have largest office, you know, area per unit volume. So we have a greater inter facial area between the droplets on the hot air than we will have faster evaporation as a result, so droplets can fall to the bottom of the dryer, and it's the size of the droplets. Our biggest result, the droplets will put all rather than being suspended in the hot air on the dry solids being carried out of the dryer. So if less water is evaporated, there will be less heat to be transferred from the inland air to the parliament solution due to which gas outlet temperature, which remains with 1 10 degrees Celsius on the wet temperature, remains below 1 10 degrees Celsius. So in the extreme case that what we have no evaporation occurring, the gas and solution temperature will be close to their respective inlet values off 181 around 25 degrees C. Therefore, that's the outlet temperature off the Imagine gas increases. So the effect of the volumetric flow rate car be determined without doing calculations on. Lastly, the relative humanity does decrease.

So just drop of some contextual information. I'll just draw up on the screen. The equations of interest to have log he started the bay for pressure is equal to a minus. B over T f C ABC The coefficients t is all temperature we have pieced are a since Y a multiplied by P. P start is a partial pressure. Why is the mole fraction of Pete is the total pressure? So the full form of L. F Ellis, the lower flammability limit. So what we have is a flashpoint of us over a 15 flashpoint Brussels based 75 degrees Celsius and in the ambient temperature of our lab is 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. So the temperature of solving a is 15 degrees Celsius, which is lower than the ambient temperature in the lab so soften a can ignite easily have exposed exposed to a flame. However, if we take a look at solving B, it's 75 degrees Celsius, which is higher than the ambient temperature in the lab. To solve and be cannot ignite is easily if exposed to a flame, so solvent be is safer to keep in the lab two. Therefore, it must be monitored the temperature of the solvent. They does not rise above 15 degrees Celsius streets, which it must be refrigerated. However, there is no need to put solvent be in the fridge. It's moving on, Susie next part here. So the LF l of methanol in air is about six miles to sound, and the total pressure is one atmosphere. So one atmosphere we know is equal to 100 and 1.3 to 5. Killer Paschal's more fraction of methanol is equals the ratio one component in the total mixture. So why, for methanol is equal to 9.6 fried by 100 we get not quite, not six to the mole. Fraction of math does not point North. Six. We can calculate the partial pressure of methanol. You start. Um, it's equal to not point not six. We'll swap by one a 1.3 to 5. That gives us 6.795 kill of our skulls. So the part of pressure methane is 6.0 76 95 Killer pass girls. I was just written on the screen there. So now that we know the partial pressure of methanol, methanol coefficients. We have listed as a B and C weaken. Substitute them in on solve our equation. Hands we have logged 6.795 seek to 16.5785 Take away 3638.27 Divided by T. R. 239.5 We sold the T. We got a value of 6.768 degrees Celsius, so the flashpoint of methanol and the temperature are closer to each other. Therefore, the values of flashpoint were taken around 7 to 8 degrees Celsius. Eso, the flashpoint of methanol, is a lot less than the ambient temperature of the environment. So if methanol is exposed to an open flame, it will easily evaporate. Entertain? LF l and if it's exposed to ignition source, it can easily catch fire. So the common ignition sources we have our sparks heart plates, Bunsen burners in the lab

So I am. Exchange chromatography is executed by making the reversible exchange of irons between irons present and solution on iron exchange resin. So we tend to use this to separate similar irons. And so in the first part where it's calculating the total amount of solution fed into the column 36 7.2 liters. So in part B, the expression of a volumetric flow rate for solution a be a T think was not point for liters per minute. The VA 33.6 minutes multiplied by t was able to not point not 11 90 so we can apply the mass balance in solution A M put a is equal to accumulation at a and we are able thio. The salmon that has Time T varies from not to 33.6 minutes and V A varies from zero to V a bracket. L The volume of Solution A becomes 6.72 liters on. We can calculate the amount of sodium chloride there's an A. C. L is equal to 392.72 grams and a c l. And so we can give an expression for environment for a lower rate of solution be that is tu minus no point no. 11 19 that is equal to be be dark t. So the total volume of solution a 60.48 liters total volume solution by solution be not at all number of moles of tres fad. Three points. There are two full mall on some possible potentials for error. So pumped be might have failed, causing a flow of one mole of sodium chloride to the column during the illusion period. Programs method chosen to execute in the chromatography could be incorrect. Perhaps the column was packed with the wrong reason, maybe arising. That has reduced affinity compared to the correct resin.


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