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In-Class Activity _ Protein folding and genetkc mutatdonsAcid denatures proteins because _ alters the protonation and deprotonation of R-groups; Jlonk bond betwcen ...

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In-Class Activity _ Protein folding and genetkc mutatdonsAcid denatures proteins because _ alters the protonation and deprotonation of R-groups; Jlonk bond betwcen glutamic acld and histldine at pH The structure protein stablllzed DY an 7,4. What level protcin structure being stabilized?Inkatldint For each glutamlc acid E 4.25. The pKa for the R-Broup The pKa - for the [ R-group the R-group Then; erouo that[s i present evant lonizable functicnal amino acld, identify the Identify the charge at pH

In-Class Activity _ Protein folding and genetkc mutatdons Acid denatures proteins because _ alters the protonation and deprotonation of R-groups; Jlonk bond betwcen glutamic acld and histldine at pH The structure protein stablllzed DY an 7,4. What level protcin structure being stabilized? Inkatldint For each glutamlc acid E 4.25. The pKa for the R-Broup The pKa - for the [ R-group the R-group Then; erouo that[s i present evant lonizable functicnal amino acld, identify the Identify the charge at pH 7.2. Gimamlc Acld Hlstidine approximately 4.5 nrotein movcd Into the lysosome where the pH nftne protein? Explain and sketch the result Tne (oldink pH affect Now it is time think outslde the box: How might vou design - protein that is resistant to changes in pH; vet still retains the same Overa structure and function?



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A naturally occurring amino acid such as alanine has a group that is a carboxylic acid and a group that is a protonated amine. The $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ values of the two groups are shown. a. If the $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ value of a carboxylic acid such as acetic acid is about 5 (see Table 2.1 ), then why is the $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ value of the carboxylic acid group of alanine so much lower? b. Draw the structure of alanine in a solution at $\mathrm{pH}=0$. c. Draw the structure of alanine in a solution at physiological pH (pH 7.4). d. Draw the structure of alanine in a solution at $\mathrm{pH}=12$. e. Is there a pH at which alanine is uncharged (that is, neither group has a charge)? f. At what pH does alanine have no net charge (that is, the amount of negative charge is the same as the amount of positive charge)?

Question number 120 is a poly protic acid question, with amino acids serving as the examples. First, it recognizes that all amino acids have a an acetic acid or a car box cilic acid group C H or C O. H. And it also has an amine group. The first question wants to know whether or not the amino acid glistening that does not have any significant, significantly acidic our group. We're just focusing on the car back. Cilic acid and the amine of all amino acids can exist in a with a protein ated car box, Ilic acid group and a deep protein ated, or un protein ated. A mean group. To answer this question, we need to know whether or not or calculate whether or not this hydrogen condone eight itself to this nitrogen through the process of will say, this hydrogen represents are acidic group being then donated to this nitrogen right here. This would be called an internal acid base reaction, resulting in what's often called a is litter ion. The K. A value for this hydrogen is 4.47 times 10 to the negative three on the K B value for accepting the hydrogen of this nitrogenous 6.3 times 10 to the negative five. So what we need to do then is determine whether or not this hydrogen can be donated to this nitrogen with the K and K B values provided. To do that, we need to figure out what the cave for this reaction is. I'm sorry. Not for this reaction. We need to figure out what the K is for this reaction. That is the sum of these two reactions. The hydrogen from here being donated to the base, which is the ammonia. How did we do this? Well, K is the reaction of the weak acid with water. K is always for with water. So if this were to react with water and donate its hydrogen, then the hydrogen would come off. We would get the equivalent of a minus plus hydro knee. Um, if this were to react with water, um, if it had a hydrogen on it. So this is now corresponding Thio another hydrogen making this positively charged. If this were to have a hydrogen on it, it react with water, donated its hydrogen and turn into just what we're seeing here and in the process it would generate Hydro Nia, Mayan. Now we don't have the k A for this when it's protein ated. But we do have the K B for when it's deep protein ated so we can calculate the K A of this when it's protein ated from the K B by dividing KB indicate w Now, if we were to reverse this reaction and some of these two reactions up, we would get this overall reaction, which is the reaction that we're trying to consider. If we were to reverse this reaction and some them up, then we need to multiply these K values together. But having reverse this reaction, we need to take the reciprocal of this K value because it's now going in the reverse order. So the new equilibrium constant for the some of these two reactions will be this multiplied by the reciprocal of this, which gives us a value of 2.7 times 10 to the to the seven. And this is a large. This is a large equilibrium constant, and that's significant because that then means that it is highly likely, and the equilibrium is going to favor this hydrogen coming off and being donated to this nitrogen over here, forming the sweeter I on. So to answer. Question one. Can the amino acid dissolved in pure water have a protein ated this and a deep protein ated this? The answer is no. In pure water, the equilibrium constant for the internal acid based reaction of this hydrogen being donated to this nitrogen is very large, so that's what's going to occur. And what's going to exist is ah, protein ated nitrogen and a deep throat nated car. Buck Cilic acid. Next for part B. It asks us to calculate the ratio of the acid concentration to the base concentration at Ph 5.5. Well, to calculate the ratio of the asset to the base song is I'm sorry. The base to the acid a song is the base is the conjugate base to the weak acid. We use the Henderson Hassle Baulch equation so our desired pH is equal to PK PK of what will the acid that is being shown in part B is the fully protein ated form where we have ah hydrogen here and we have ah hydrogen here. The first hydrogen that is going to come off is going to be this one which will have a larger K a value then the K a value that we calculated right here. So the one with the larger K A values the 4.74 point 47 times 10 the negative three. That's going to be the K a value then pH equals P K plus the log of the ratio we rearrange and we solve for the ratio and the ratio is 1414. Now for part C, we have another amino acid with lysine, and the our group here has acidic in basic property. So there's now a third K value a k A value for this, a k value for this. When it's protein ated in a k A value for the our group. We could look up these three K values for licensing. If listen, is it a pH of one? Well, we know that when pH equals p k a. The weak acid and its conjugate base concentrations are equal. So if we're below this pH, then we have predominantly the fully protein ated form of licensing, which is going to look like this, It'll have its our group. That is protein ated. It will have the nitrogen that is protein ated and it'll have the car box Cilic acid, that is protein ated. If we then go to ph seven, we're somewhere between this one and this one. And if we're somewhere between these two, then the species that exists is going to be not the fully protein ated form, but the doubly protein ated form. Now that we're at a pH between these two, if we're to Ph between these two, then the form that exists is Thesiger lee protein ated. And if we're to ph above this, then the fully deep protein ated form predominates. So at Ph. Seven, we have the doubly protein ated form that exists. The car box Cilic acid is the strongest acid, so that's the hydrogen that comes off all the nitrogen remain protein ated. Then, at a Ph 13, where we're above 10.82 we're going to have the fully deep protein ated form of life scene which looks like this now for the next one, we have glue tannic acid. It also has an acidic our group. So it has three p k a values. And we're going to use the same reasoning as we did up here. At a ph of one, we are below the first PK value. So we have the fully protein ated form, which in the figures is be or D sorry D. And then at Ph seven, we're now somewhere between these two. So if we're between these two, it's the doubly protein ated between these two. It's the Singley protein ated and the Singley protein ated form in this problem corresponds to figure B. And now, for the last one, we're a Ph 13. So we're above the last PK value. So this is going to be the fully deep Roatan ated form. And the fully deep protein ated form in the figures provided is a

That the building blocks off protein. There are 20 Emma noises which make up different types of protein by arranging themselves differently em in. Or is it that the organic compounds that contain a mine and car boxes function functional groups and usual side chain the car Boxley Group off Emma noise. It is a weak acid that releases proton at PH more than, uh, peak value off car box. Really groups off. And, um, you know, ace it. Uh huh. Um, similarly, a mind group is a weak base that accepts the proton at Ph less than they said the association. Constant value off a mind group often emulated. It's specific. Ph the charge on the m I No as Sita zero and it's called sweeter. Hi, The immunized It's are majorly classify Didn't do six groups as Elif eh Tik. Hi drugs. It's I click aromatic, basic and acidic amino acids. Uh, thus Hey, student has three iron Izabal groups, which include Ah, um, as far Emina Group Alpha Hydro hydro. Sorry. Car Boggs Little group and side Jane Amino. Nope. Ah, I saw electric pointed the pH at which the molecule had net zero judge and behaves as a twitter iron. If the P I value is greater than ph value the next charge and I'm you noticed it will be positive. In contrast, the next charge and administered will be negative. And the pH value smaller than that. Ah ph value. So the the equilibrium constant equation for the three an invisible, uh, groups and is the dissociation constant value are Hey, stood in is today, um, this is feed the below h see it's it's three and C H two and image, which this plus two and the big gear one is 1.82 Then again, see the little minus C edge at three and C H two and edge image. This is plus one, and the big are value is six. Then we have again. It's Please see edge C W. Minus this against the H two and and it said double bond zero, and they pick it, too. Value is 9.17 See, double a minus C h h two n, c. H two and it plus one. So, uh, twitter irons is the iron having equal opposite charge such that the next charge over the molecule becomes zero So at Ph. 7.59 The amino is it has stood in. He stood in. We'll have No, we'll have no let charge and behaves as is sweeter. I does the next charging, um, he student molecule at each state is plus two +10 and Linus one. No. Um, the structure off history in structure and ionization. State off. Student at page one is at page one. They these structures. This this is Ph. One, then at Ph. Two. Sorry at Ph one. The structure is this appeared one. Then there's a pita structured page four. This is a structure at ph. Eight. And this is the structure at ph. 12. No. Ah. Next this the net charge off. Feminizing his student at specific Ph is at the peak too. That is yes, it dissociation constant off car box. Silly car, boxy. Group off. Tested in is 1.82 Big one at, um, I am in no group is 9.17 and at Ah, side Jane is six. Therefore, um, the movement off festered in in electric builder, but ah ph one. The neck charges zero. Sorry. No charges. Plus two on then, when it is placed in a electric field, The molecule, my great towards the cathode at, um be it for did not charges plus two. And it was my great towards the get towed. Sorry, Get thought at Ph. Eight at the ph. Eight. Hey, student does not exhibit any judge. Judges zero uh, and then the charges zero and existence with Ryan. Hence, when it placed in an electric field, it does not show, does not show any electric mobility. And then at Ph. 12 than the charge off his stinginess minus one and when ended, migrates towards a nod when it is placed in and like.


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