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Question 132pts13. Which of the following statements about sickle cell _ disease is not true?The hemoglobin protein consists of four polypeptide chains: two alpha c...

Question

Question 132pts13. Which of the following statements about sickle cell _ disease is not true?The hemoglobin protein consists of four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two bcta chainsThc mutanon causes an amina acid substitution. rcplacing elutamic ncid with valine.Due to this change amino acid sequerce; the heroglobin tends to precipitate (or clump togetherl wlthln the RBC after rclcasing oxvgen, This clumping causes the RBC to assurne an abrormal "sickled shane:There variation Ihe a

Question 13 2pts 13. Which of the following statements about sickle cell _ disease is not true? The hemoglobin protein consists of four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two bcta chains Thc mutanon causes an amina acid substitution. rcplacing elutamic ncid with valine. Due to this change amino acid sequerce; the heroglobin tends to precipitate (or clump togetherl wlthln the RBC after rclcasing oxvgen, This clumping causes the RBC to assurne an abrormal "sickled shane: There variation Ihe alpha-globin gere of humans thal e results [ in sickle-cell anemia



Answers

Sickle-cell anemia is a recessive autosomal disorder that is caused by an amino acid substitution in the $\beta$ -hemoglobin protein. The DNA mutation underlying this substitution is a SNP that alters a GAG codon for the amino acid glutamate to a GTG that codes a valine. The frequency of sickle-cell anemia among African Americans is about $1 / 400 .$ What is the frequency of this GTG codon in the $\beta$ -hemoglobin gene among African Americans?

Sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic defect by her genetic defect. That substitute that substitutes Velin violent for the atomic. Is it low? Atomic, he said in a specific allegation. Specific quotation in the hemoglobin protein. And Sorry. No groping proteins. The structure off Thio amino acids, huh? No. Hay said. Ah en urge to on edge. Go see. See which thio? Oh, single bond. Which the one which see ch three ch three Which this is filling on glue Stomach ace it ISS edged O n See the porch. Oh, see? Ch two ch two The who rich the amino acid. The amino acid Valine is a non polar is a non polar Where is where? As clue Atomic Isett is a is glue atomic A said is, uh, polar. Yeah. Andi, Um you know a sit change from the Polo Paula blue Temic a sea duty Do the non polar villain is veiling is sufficient Sufficient Change the shape off to change the shape off rbc's from desk to this to sickles shaped Thus the sickle shaped our business. First, I should tickle sell off RBC causes the girl cell and the media. Um yeah,

All right, this is Question 78 according to this question. So the information given is that sickle cell anemia is a result of a substitution of a lane for gluten gluten. MK acid and Hugo been. When this happens, the cell you bility of human glow been in water. Decreases we need to do is answer the question. Why is this based on the structures of these two amino acids? So it's first look at baleen. As with all amino acids, we have our mean group carpet sell gas in group in our chain, the site chain. It's like this Carmen with two metal groups attached to it. And now let's draw a structure for glue to make acid signed chain for gloom, a casted siege to another siege to see. Don't we bonded oxygen and no age group. So it's look at the side change of these side chains, or what's important because that's the only way in which these were different because you're amino acids. Veiling has thes methyl groups, so this side chain is not polar because it's non polar. It's going to be water insoluble. I was looking gloomy. Mean we have a science chain here at the end. Here we have a carpet Cilic acid functional group. This, in contrast to the bailing, is polar. It's a polar functional group. Because of that, this amino acid, it's going to be water soluble. Other words We could use our hydrophobic for the baleen, but I think right those hydrophobic for Bailey and Hydra Philip for good I mean so gloomy. Mean is how did you feel? Like it's water soluble is like dissolves like water's polar. This searching group is polar, so it should be soluble in water and it is people go in it. This contributes to the scalability, but Valin is hydrophobic and if we replace that, if we replace the gloomy castle with the veiling, that would explain why it decreases the H 20 solid ability. The water soluble ity, because we were replacing ah, hide your filic amino acid with a hydrophobic amino acid. That's why hemoglobin is less soluble in water for an anemic cell

Okay, so you have to look at the figure in the book. But what can be seen is, is the most enzyme pathways for each enzyme catalyze is the step four next enzyme Mhm. And this is coded for mhm by a G. This matches answer option E.

We're looking for a disease that it's not genetic. So this would not be something that he would pick up at birth from an affection your DNA or that could, over time happened just due to chance. An error. So if we'll get sickle cell anemia, that's definitely a chain. We've found that Jane picking you Also a chain for sure. Cystic fibrosis, Multiple different mutations can cost a quick process and jeans AIDS ages an impact from HIV, which is a virus. Therefore, it cannot be you had a chance alone finally, and just wrapping things up. Hemophilia is due to its gene itself. So the answer is D. It's


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