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Cl /HCO} antiporerGhanneHCO,HCOgchannelCorbinic enhyin?H/KT APaseADP HzoCozCOz+OHBasolateral membraneApical membraneTight junctionJondoedStomih lmcn FH 1-OPH .-pK ...

Question

Cl /HCO} antiporerGhanneHCO,HCOgchannelCorbinic enhyin?H/KT APaseADP HzoCozCOz+OHBasolateral membraneApical membraneTight junctionJondoedStomih lmcn FH 1-OPH .-pK 2FIGURE 11-31 Acidification of the stomach Iumen by parietal cells in the gastric lining: The apica) membrne parietal cells con Lains /K" ATPase ~class pumpi well = andk' chunnels Note the cyclic K transport across the apical membrane: Jons are pumped Inward by theH" ATPase and exit via J channel The basalateral membran

Cl /HCO} antiporer Ghanne HCO, HCOg channel Corbinic enhyin? H/KT APase ADP Hzo Coz COz+OH Basolateral membrane Apical membrane Tight junction Jond oed Stomih lmcn FH 1-O PH .- pK 2 FIGURE 11-31 Acidification of the stomach Iumen by parietal cells in the gastric lining: The apica) membrne parietal cells con Lains /K" ATPase ~class pumpi well = andk' chunnels Note the cyclic K transport across the apical membrane: Jons are pumped Inward by theH" ATPase and exit via J channel The basalateral membrane canlainsJn Jnion antiporter that exchanges HCO; andCi ions- The combined operatian of these four different transport proteins and carbonic unhydrase acidifies the stomach lumen while maintaining the neutral pH ol the Cytosal



Answers

Cells in the wall of the mammalian stomach secrete HCl at a concentration of $0.15 \mathrm{M}$. The secreted protons, which are derived from the intracellular hydration of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ by carbonic anhydrase, are pumped out by an $\left(\mathrm{H}^{+}-\mathrm{K}^{+}\right)$ -ATPase antiport. A $\mathrm{K}^{+}-\mathrm{Cl}^{-}$ co-transporter is also required to complete the overall transport process. (a) Calculate the pH of the secreted HCl. How does this compare to the cytosolic pH (7.4)$?$ (b) Write the reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. (c) Draw a diagram to show how the action of both transport proteins results in the secretion of HCl.

Let's continue the free energy required to transport one mole of hydrogen ions through these pumps inside, from outside to the inside of the cell to solve. For the concentration of H plus outside the cell in the side is all pH of 70 so 10 to the minus 70 This is equal to 1.0 times 10 to the negative. Seven. Mueller the concentration of each plus inside the cell. Yes, it's pretty to the gastric juice. PH Inside the sellers 1.0. This is 0.10 Moeller Inside the self Using these values here, we can calculate equilibrium constant, which is equal to the concentration outside the cell over at the H plus concentration inside the cell. This is equal to one point zero times 10 to the negative. Seven. Over Put 10 This will yield 10 times 10 to the negative. Six. The free energy Delta G is equal to negative r T lawn of the cake. It's a negative, uh, 8.314 joules per more Calvin temperatures. 37 degrees. So this is 310 Calvin Lawn of 1.0 times 10 to the negative. Six we get. I'm gonna do this in scientific 30 three point 56 times. Tend to the fourth Jules. Per mole would be the free energy or 35.6 que jewels per more. And that is our free energy required for he transport of one mole of hydrogen ions through the pumps.

Okay, emergency this question. Let's talk about a in these transporters of clarity and a hiring iron food. So it's just that and the sons remembering closing consider organized. So this is a cell for example, the memory inside you're going to have in songs. Okay. And and they need an acidic looming in order to push. So you're going to have here. You need high levels of Hedren areas in order to have a low ph for us or a seed ph pH Okay, acidification is achieved by young by highway iron pump and then the normal membrane which also contains chloride channels somewhere. So here we have yeah, a proton bump and also about half chloride transport proclaimed each other's okay if the chinese don't function properly and a certification is also impaired. Question is, can you explain how glory china's might help a certification. So practically this bump, this 100 tv's hairdryers pump is going to pump proteins with denials inside of the bicycle. Okay to make it acidic. Okay. But at some point this gradient is going to be a lot. So particularly there are going to be very high levels of hydrogen ions inside on the other end of some and low levels of 100 onions here. So particularly, um, this pump is going to start or particularly this gradient is going to start assisting the pump. So particularly from is not going to be able to put more hydrogen because you already have like uh, too much of this hydrogen ions and also you have also an electrical gradient because the hydrogen ions are positively charges. So they are creating a positive charge here in comparison to this. Okay, so how chloride uh, reporters are going to help this with glory transporters are going to also get inside of the of the at the base of the index. Um Okay. And as chloride ions are negatively charged and then they are going to utilize this positively charged end, awesome. And as it is particularly going to decrease the positivity inside of the windows. Um then more protons or hydrocarbons are going to be able to most instead of lying to some. And this is going to help in the movement of even more hydrogen ion society that into some and this is going to make that in some more achieved. Okay, so this is the, is the answer for question. A question business according to your explanation. Would that chloride channels we absolutely required to lower the agency that into some. And this is false. Okay, because uh, so if this chlorine ions are not here or china's are not here, then protests are going to be pumped anyway by this proton pump. Okay, But or hiring ions pump in in the ph of the system is going to be going to be low or our acidic. Okay, but what the chloride transporter particularly that is that it is going to help to make the ph here even more acidic than than this transport of us. Okay, so this is the answer for your question

Okay. So we are giving given three enzymes and we have to calculate and we have to write their common names and order of action. Okay, so we'll start with the first one, which happens to be the one that's the first enzyme is water. Last two. Cool known proxy door. We don't these and this is called Photo System two and Zain last school, You know, last door signing. What do you do? Inductees? And this is called it cytochrome B six S. I'm told one is N. Zion last store cyan family dog. Better Dark Scene. Oh, you do end up days on this is called system oh one. So this is how it proceeds.

Okay. Sino bacteria. Yeah. Yeah, contain. Yeah. No. Right Blues 15 This force feed, which we call us are you. Bt and small and irons like H C. 03 negative. So this are you bebe is the key enzyme okay, in Townsman cycle, which produces seal two. So this uh enzyme and I'm okay catalyze is to produce C. 0. 2. Okay. Okay. The carbonic and hydrates is also a component of car box. See some because it catalyze is the conversion oh buy a car. You need two c. 0. two which is as said, this soul does substrate of are you baby plus boxy please.


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