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CHM11Q Spring_2020 BONDING WORKSHQP For each of the following moleculeslions _ complete steps 1-6: count total # of valence clcctronsdraw the Lewis Structure identi...

Question

CHM11Q Spring_2020 BONDING WORKSHQP For each of the following moleculeslions _ complete steps 1-6: count total # of valence clcctronsdraw the Lewis Structure identify the electronic geometry identify the molecular geometry identify the bond angle (if there are Ione pairs on the central atom, just write "distorted"polarity (polarlnon-polar)###LABEL EACH STEP #1-#6 for each problem- XeF4 CIF21+ CCIaNO31 - NBr3

CHM11Q Spring_2020 BONDING WORKSHQP For each of the following moleculeslions _ complete steps 1-6: count total # of valence clcctrons draw the Lewis Structure identify the electronic geometry identify the molecular geometry identify the bond angle (if there are Ione pairs on the central atom, just write "distorted" polarity (polarlnon-polar) ###LABEL EACH STEP #1-#6 for each problem- XeF4 CIF21+ CCIa NO31 - NBr3



Answers

For each compound, draw the Lewis structure, determine the geometry using VSEPR theory, determine whether the molecule is polar, identify the hybridization of all interior atoms, and make
a sketch of the molecule, according to valence bond theory, showing orbital overlap.
\begin{equation}\text { a. } \mathrm{IF}_{5} \quad \text { b. } \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{CHCH}_{3} \quad \text { c. } \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{SH}\end{equation}

Okay, So in this problem, we will draw the Louis structure for three molecular formulas and use that blue structure to determine the geometry, the polarity and the hybridization of the central Adam. So we start off with CEO F two. So we're given that the central Adam is carbon. So we want automatically put all the other three structures for the three atoms around that problem now to determine how many electrons we're gonna use in each little structure. Well, you we can't surveillance electrons in each. Adam. That's because of a landslide. Drums were the ones being used to form these pipe visa. These bonds between a molecule and are essentially the lone pairs that you see in the little structures. So, Cartman an easy way to determine the basements. Electrons are by seeing what group number and the purity table each autumn is so carbon is grouping before, and it has four elections in its statements. Cloud carbon oxygen is from number six and Florida's group number seven. But we have to will you two times seven. So that equals 24 life terms. So our Lewis structure needs to have 24 electrons in total now we simply bond these molecules to carbon. We have used up six electrons, so we still have 18 to distribute, and we have three surrounding molecules. So first we can start off by giving the electrons to hell. Idiots. Just because college is usually have a lot of electrons and when we do the formal charge, pelicans are most stable, our neutral when they have one bond and three lone pairs of electrons. So when we do the formal charge, remember, home row charge is the number. Ah, valence electrons. So the group number minus the lone pairs minus the months. So Floyd is group number seven seven minus six. Elect Trump's is one minus 11 and zero. So this way, the too floor in their new drugs. And they are they're not charges zero. So essentially what? We want to make the most stable Lewis structure. So now we have used up 12 more like drunks out of the 18 so we still have to distribute six electrons. Now, if you remember, Carmen is most stable with four months. I know it has three, and we no longer want to mess with the Florence because the florins already have. They're not charged zero, but we cannot. One more bond. So oxygen, oxygen, as you may know as well, is most stable with two bonds and two lone pairs. So we have already used up another pair of electrons. We have used to have six. We have for now, but we give those off to oxygen. We can give them to carbon because then we would be breaking doctoral. Mean that the carbon would have more than eight electrons in its failings show. So this way oxygen, which is good. Number six, we do the formal charge for that six minus for my John sets. Tu minus two Bond said. It's here. So now all the molecules are neutral, while Adam's or neutral in this overall charge of the loose structure is your Oh, so this is the most stable Lewis structure that we conform. Now we can determine the hybridization of the central atom. So a trick that you can use is counting the group the number of groups around the central autumn. So we have three. We have one to day Sorry, foreign. You have oxygen for so 123 That's one Countess Yes, two counts of S P one three years sp two The hybridization of this central atom use s p two and that's because each group is gonna be occupying on SP hybridized orbital. Let's be to hybridize orbital in this case and an SP to Adam has three SP to hybridized or bills and each signal one is an occupy these SP to hybridize Oracle's so the same one bonds being the single months. So there's two electrons in each bond. So the bond that's being form to the quite the flooring on the left is occupying one sp two hybridized orbit. Um, the other florin is also occupying that bond is also occupying an SP Torbit. Um, the double bond consists of a single bond in a pi bon that's connected to the oxygen. The seem a bond. It's gonna be occupying NSB tour bottom in the pie. Mont is going to be occupying a P orbital up here. Okay, so that's an easy way to determine it. But this is what it really looks like when the orbital's are actually being off. So that's a harmonisation of a sunshade. Now, to determine the geometry, we're going to use this notation A is a central Adam being carbon X is a number of groups around her, the number of months which is straight. So this gives us the geometry of tribunal plainer. Now I dealing attritional plainer molecule. We would like that the structures for the three buns to be 100 and 20 degrees away from each other that Issa's far away from each other as they can be to avoid strike interactions. And they also the reason why they push each other away make the bonds is because bonds consist of electrons and electrons. For probably, however, because we formed this pie one between carbon and oxygen, not gave that area or that bonding. Ah, lot more electron density. And that electron density pushes down on the neighboring Florence further down the 120 degrees away from each other. So the oxygen and the flooring will actually be more than 120 degrees away from each other, and the florins air pushed closer together. So when we draw this doctor and flooring or 121.9 degrees away from each other, and these two fines are 100 and 16.2 degrees away from each other. And with these angles, the Net disciple, it's not end up cancelling out. So then you would have a polar molecule. Okay, now we move on to the next one. We're getting us to seal too. Now we're giving the notation that the connectivity of this is chlorine bonnets of sulfur monitor. So for bonded to chlorine. And when we determine the number of a list electrons that need to be in our loose structure, we have to Seoul Furs Soul first group number six that has six electrons in its basins club plus two coins. Chlorine is your number seven toe stop. This 14 is 26. Now we have already used up six electrons. When we formed these bots, we need to distribute 20 more again. I like to start off with the Koreans. So in the previous example, we saw that the formal charge of ah halogen would be zero if the halogen has one bond in six electrons or three lone pairs. So we did it again so that chlorine again has a formal charge of syrup. We have gotten rid off 12 more electrons, 20 minus. Well, we need eight more to distribute and we have to solve for us so we could distribute them evenly. Give each sulfur two lone pairs when we have used up the 26 or friends. Now, in this case, we have to some tribes and their hybridization. Does that speak to you again? And we used that trick that I showed you earlier. You count the number of lone pairs or bonds, so in total, the number of groups around the central In this case, we have four because we have two months and we have tool in pairs. So we do as p one p two Pete Dream SPT we hybridize orbital. So that's the trick. But what I would do it until you look like is we would have four sp three hybridize orbital's. And we're gonna focus on this sofa right here. So this sulfur has two lone pairs, so there's one month there. There's another lone pair, each occupying an SP three orbital, and then it has a Bonta quarry. A bomb has two electrons. That's also if you find an SP through orbital in the bonds of sulfur, it's another pair of war. France. So that's what the hybridization would look like not to determine the geometry of this. We use again. The notation a user central himself for X is the number of groups mean to, and he is the number of lone pairs also to so this young she would be bet, and what that means is that only draw this. The sulfur has empty orbital's not empty MSAR have SP three orbital's that are being occupied by lone pairs. Those lone pairs will repel the other two groups of the two buns. We pushed them away in a downward way. That's within the geometry school bent because essentially bends those other two bombs like this. No, no one said we have a client on the other. We have self, and that other sulphur is also a central data. It has exact scene shake. Okay, In this case, the corns are in the transposition. There is far away from each other. It's possible to avoid serik interactions, and the bending between the two bonds and each central atom are created by the lone pairs. So because of these angles, you know the two Adams, where the two groups bonded to the central atom are 104 degrees, 104.5 degrees away from each other. And this would make the structure Poehler's well, because then that disciples were not cancer will not cancel out. Okay, so we're gonna move on to the next one. The last one, which is us, Uh, for Okay, So we're given that the central item is flooring. I'm sorry. It's sulfur. So we can just right off the bat, touch all of the coins to that silver and make it the central now to counsel to count our Baylin select trance that are gonna be contributory Lewis structure? Yeah, sulfur group number six. Plus, we have four florins, and that's group number seven. So four times seven is 28. Six was 34. So we have already used up eight electrons by bonding the foreign to the silver. There was, like, a single bond so that 34 electrons minus eight it's 26 now. Then, if we distribute enough electron, see each wine so that its formal charges zero So we need to give it 31 pierce each one. So that again the former charge will be seven. It's group number, minus one want minus six elections that equals here. So we have gone right of six times Four. That's 24 electrons 26 minus 24. We have two electrons left. No, we can't give them Tony to the floor in 10 years Defines because then we would be breaking an architectural, meaning that these Florence would have more than eight electrons in its feelings cloud. And that cannot happen. However, soul for is one of those atoms that can take up more than eight electrons in its valence show. So we give those compares to sulfur and that gives this sulfur Ah, hybridization of sp three d. So again, if you use that trick, this is S P. Why, I'm sorry. S p one p two p three d is that lone pair So that loan paralyzing a D or bill? So what that looks like again is we have four sp three or middles and one day orbital, one of the bonds to flooring is occupying 11 SPT Orbital's the second flooring a second SP three orbital, third and fourth. So all the stuff of bonds better from a foreign to us over are occupied and SP three orbital's and the low perroncel for his occupying that DRB. Now, to determine the geometry of this, can we use the same rotation? Either Central Atom X is a number of groups around that central idea being for and we have one lone pair. So this gives us a geometry of a seesaw. And to make the most stable shame, we have to put that lone pair. So here's orbital that that long socks point in equatorial position. This is so that it is as far away as it can possibly be from its neighboring in Florence. So here we have two florins on the plane. We have one Florida coming out of the plane. Come on, flooring going into the plane. And when we do this, this flooring is 90 degrees away from that lone pair and the flooring that are coming in and out of the plane or 100 and 20 degrees away from that lone pair. And with this shape and these angles again, the diapers don't cancel out. So then the structure would be pulling, and that isn't. Thank you so much

Right. So this question asked us to do a lot of things with this portable here. I'm only gonna have enough room to do the Louis structures. So I'll just tell you guys what to do for the, um, the Vesper structure. So for this first molecule, we know that carbon is the central Adams. We can start there. It's got and oxygen and two florins attached to it. And since that's everything we know, it's unusual. Molecule. We know Carbon wants four bonds. Oxygen wants to sleep. Put in extra bones here. Now everyone's happy. We need Teo determined the hybridization of the interior. Adam's first. So since carbon has three things around it, it's going to share those into three, even Orbital's. That's when the F P, too, and the extra pure battle that we didn't blend into this hybridization mix makes that double bond with oxygen. It's a very draw. This according to Valence bond theory, we wouldn't use thes right angles here because this is going to be tribunal, uh, Pointer. So these air all going to be one twenty degree angles, it's gonna fit essentially a triangle, and that will help us answer whether or not this molecules. Polar. So we've got polar bonds here. Oxygen foreigner. Elect your negatives. I'm drawing these sort of angles indicate that they should be pointing away from each other. Um, and if these were all the same molecule, they would perfectly cancel each other out. But because oxygen and foreign, they're going to pull differently. The smoke you'll will be polar. They don't perfectly cancel each other out. So next we have s two sealed too. And this little stripped here tells us that we're goingto have a corinne bonded to its sulfur, bonded to a sulfur bonded to according the news from all you Corning liketo have one bond. So for life tohave throughout the long pierce suffer like I have to. So everything is happy. They all have the right number of bonds I need to fill in. These won't parents here. Sulfur has six valence electrons uses two for bonding, at least four leftover goingto long bears. And same with the Koreans. It has seven electrons when it uses one to form a bond. It has left over just three low in pairs and everything here has only single bonds in it, which means it's all F p three but it's not going to be straight when here like this when you draw it because it needs to be in the hybridization of Tetra Hydro. So Tetra Hydro looks like sort of too wines like that and then a wedge in the dash Sort of like this on DSO This molecule is going to be poor because these bonds are going to twist it. They're not gonna pull evenly in each direction. Thes here are poor bonds between the sulphur and Corinne and if it was truly when you're like this, it wouldn't be poor. But these bonds are again not gonna be one hundred eighty degrees finally with S F four. So it's sulfur with four foreigners around it and the foreign zehr goingto have, there are tough, completely filled sulfur is going to do one of those rare exceptions where it's breaking the octet rule. That's because it has six valence electrons and it's made four bonds which was a two extra electoral chances. Go somewheres now. Is that ten total things around it. So you break the octet rule, you can't. You have to go higher than S P three in order to fit everything in. So this is f P three and then it uses a D orbital F P. Three d. This is going to form a seesaw type structure. It looks sort of like this in face where one of these is a bond out indicated by a wedge in the other one. Is the dash light indicating that's going back? So this is going to be polar because these bones here are all poor and the way that I drew it here in this Louis structure, they all perfectly cancel each other out. But since it actually on this seesaw, you see that you'LL pull in in this direction and in that direction, and that will cancel each other out. But then there's two arrows pulling down this way, and there's no third arrow pulling up to cancel them out. So this will be a polar molecule

The first compound is a Salford with two chlorine. Therefore so for will be the central Adam have to. Chlorine is coming off of it and then it will have to compared Alright, trance and just are the rest of my impaired period of electrons. And the geometry of this one will be bent. Since there's on Lee, two things connecting so for the next example we have is P I three. So phosphorus will be the central Adam and then it will have are dying coming off of it in three places and then it will have one set of impaired electrons and the geometry of this one will be tribunal criminal. The reason for that is because it will have three substitue INTs in one, um pair, pair of electrons. The next example we have a seal to with an oxygen so the oxygen will be our central Adam. Since it's like to bonds, both of the CIA will be bonded to it. So just like our first example, it has to substitute wince and then two pairs of, um paired electrons. And so again, this geometry will be that a next example is in H two with a Corinne. So nitrogen will be our central Adam and then to the too hard Children will be connected to it as well. A so chlorine. And then I'll have one set of unparallel our trunks. And so, just like our second example, we have we had, it will be tribunal perimeter all because it had three Substitute Wint's in one hair of electrons that are not paired with anything. Our next example. We have a sigh, which will be arson. True, Adam. And then I'll have three chlorine za round it and then one bro Ming. So since it has four substitute Wint's, the geometry of this compound will be tetra. He'd roll. Then for last example. We have oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine, so nitrogen will be or central compound and they don't have a chlorine connected to it and then will be double bonded to an oxygen. Since an oxygen likes to have two bonds and arches, one likes to have three bonds, so this will give nitrogen one pair of impaired electrons and this compound is also spent. Find that out, get free all

Let's try drawing the Louis structure for a seat. Hmeid. Well, we know that we have four electrons from carbon three electrons from all three hydrogen for electrons from carbon, six electrons from oxygen, five electrons from nitrogen and two electrons from both hydrogen. Adding this whole Together we get 7 17 and 24. 24 electrons. Well, now let's start by making our Louis structure. So we have those hired regions and its bonded toe carbon, which is bonded to an oxygen and bonded to a nitrogen and bonded to which is bonded to hydrogen. Now that we have that, what we can do is counter bar electrons. 123456789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16. Out of 24 gives us that we need eight more electrons. Now where do these electrons go? Well, we have a lone parent or nitrogen. Two lone pairs on her oxygen. Now that gives us 24 and six two electrons. Those two electrons notice how oxygen has a net negative and carbon has a net positive. The carbon in carbon because it's, well, a carbon Neil. That will be where the two electrons go to make a double bond. And because of that double bond, this Carbonell Carbon has an SP two hybridization and this carbon is gonna have an sp three. And because of this'll, the molecular geometry of this carbon is going to be tetra huge all. And this carbon is going to have a tribunal plainer molecular geometry and, well, electron pair geometry as well, because all four for Tetra Hegel are filled and all three of our tribunal planer are filled. So that will be our electron geometry and our molecular geometry. Now let's talk about this carbon and oxygen bond and we have a lone pair. But going between them, we're not a lone pair of bonding pair of electrons. And that is going to be our signal bond that is, from an SP two orbital overlapping with an SB two orbital. Now let's talk about rpai bond Buy bonds only exist in the P orbital or the interaction of the P orbital, which means that our other other electrons come from the P orbital. So as books s p two and P orbital's are what interact to form the Sigma and Pi bond, The signal bond comes from the SB two orbital's and the pure riddles form the pie Mont


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