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53. A piece of zinc reacts completely with hydrochloric acid, HCltal to produce an aqueous solution of zinc chloride, ZnClzlwal and hydrogen ga5 Use the data shown ...

Question

53. A piece of zinc reacts completely with hydrochloric acid, HCltal to produce an aqueous solution of zinc chloride, ZnClzlwal and hydrogen ga5 Use the data shown below to determine the enthalpy of reaction per mole of zinc: AH", of HCloq) -167.2 kllmol AH , of ZnClzlaa) 488.2 kJlmol Znt) - ZHCIloq) + ZnClzlaq) Hzle)b. What mass of zinc must be used for 123 kJ ofheat to be given off?with according to the following unbalanced equation: 54. Ammonia reacts oxyben NHilal Ozla) $ NOlel + H;Olal

53. A piece of zinc reacts completely with hydrochloric acid, HCltal to produce an aqueous solution of zinc chloride, ZnClzlwal and hydrogen ga5 Use the data shown below to determine the enthalpy of reaction per mole of zinc: AH", of HCloq) -167.2 kllmol AH , of ZnClzlaa) 488.2 kJlmol Znt) - ZHCIloq) + ZnClzlaq) Hzle) b. What mass of zinc must be used for 123 kJ ofheat to be given off? with according to the following unbalanced equation: 54. Ammonia reacts oxyben NHilal Ozla) $ NOlel + H;Olal tofind the enthalpy of reaction for this reaction; Use standard molar enthalpies of formation



Answers

Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the balanced equation:
$$
\mathrm{Zn}(s)+2 \mathrm{HCl}(a q) \longrightarrow \mathrm{ZnCl}_{2}(a q)+\mathrm{H}_{2}(g)
$$
When 0.103 gof Zn $(s)$ is combined with enough HCl to make 50.0 mL of solution in a coffee-cup calorimeter, all of the zinc reacts, raising the temperature of the solution from $22.5^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ to $23.7^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ . Find $\Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}$ for this reaction as written. (Use 1.0 $\mathrm{g} / \mathrm{mL}$ for the density of the solution and 4.18 $\mathrm{J} / \mathrm{g} \cdot^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ as the specific heat capacity.)

Just another example where we're looking at color women tree. I've got some contextual information at the top, but moving on swiftly we're looking at a zinc metal that connect with hydrochloric acid. Gives us the following equation. Say we have no point. Once 03 g of sink combined it with enough hydrochloric acid to generate 50 mils of solution. So all of the sink is reacting. Here we have a temperature increase from 22.5 to 23.7. So we're focusing on the change of entropy of reaction here. So just a note. We've got some values that are given, so I'll be with your equation. So firstly, we used the density of the solution as a conversion factor where we are able to convert from mill moles to grams of solution. Now we have suitable units. We can calculate que reaction. Following this, we can calculate the number of moles and sink last, they were able to calculate our change in Ansel P off reaction. So each of the step that I've noted in that small paragraph there I have a corresponding valley below, so you can track your walking out to generate a final change in reaction volume, using the equation on screen off negative 1.6 times 10 to the five joules per mole.

For this problem, we will be calculating Delta H for a reaction. And I guess you could sort of consider that we're gonna be using a little stuck geometry, albeit strike geometry light towards the end of it. Okay, for this reaction, the metal and I'm only going to give you the net. Ionic equation here reacts with silver nitrate. Whoops. I said not bionic. And of course, my products will be equals. Think I on and the silver silver medal. There we go. This their balance chemical co equation. And I am given that we're starting with 50.0 mill leaders of the silver solution. The concentration is 0.100 Moller and the delta T or I should give you my initial I'm given an initial temperature initial temperature of 19.25 degrees Celsius and a final temperature of 22.17 degrees Celsius. Make sure my cameras on it ISS and I'm also given that the heat capacity for the calorie emitter is 98.6 j per C degrees. Okay. And we're going to assume that the density of the density of the solution, um, are the same as water. And we're also gonna assume that the specific heat of water is the same as a specific heat of the solution. So that will be 4.184 j over G C. Degrees. Okay, there's all of our givens and everything that we know. I think I got everything here. Now let's make a plan. Whoopsie. Let's make a plan. We are going to first. We're going to use. We're going to use our knowledge that que, for this reaction is going to be equal to the opposite cause has to be equal. But opposite magnitude. It's for the Q of the solution. And if it was in a perfect world, you wouldn't have to do this next step. But we're gonna have to add for that the Q that's lost to the calorie meter. So we're gonna have to use that, okay? And second, we're going to use Q equals M see Delta T to find q of the, um, solution. We're going to find Queue for the calorie emitter, and then we're going to figure out, um, we're gonna find the moles of the Silver Ion because that's what we're looking for. He here And then after that, we will figure out because we're asked to find whereas to find heat per more of the and that will be for the entire reaction. Okay, so those are steps. Let's begin. Okay, so we step one we'll use later, but step to, I'm gonna write to here. We're gonna use Q equals m see Delta t. And our mass is 50.0 grams. And if you recall on the switch colors here, um, 50 milliliters, we were given that the density, um, is the same as water. So I've got 50 grams times 4.184 j over GC degrees and my delta t Um, if I take my original temperature, let's go back again. My delta t right here when I subtract thes two gives me 2.92 degrees Celsius, 2.92 degrees Celsius. So the math on this and this is cute for my solution is equal to 611 jewels. Okay, um, my cue for Step three. We were going to find the queue for the calorie emitter. And if you'll recall, we had 98 0.6 j per c degrees and we're gonna multiply that by a 2.92 which is our C degrees, and that is going to equal 288 jewels. Okay, now, remember that, um que for the rock reaction equals the opposite of Q of the solution, plus Q for the calorie emitter, which is going to equal 611 jewels plus 288 jewels equals Whoops. Negative. Eight i d nine, Jules. Okay, that's gonna be the cue of the reaction, but this is an excellent thermic reaction, so I'm going to switch by signs. Um, so my negative queue for my reaction equals 8 99 jewels. Okay, Almost done. Now, let's look again. I'm going to write down our reaction again. We had zinc plus two silver, and I don't need the rest yet. Okay, now we had 50 mill leaders. Let me erase that. We need to now find the moles of silver. And to do that, we're going to use Armel, arat E and our volume. So we're going to take our given volume, which is 0.100 malls per leader. We're gonna multiply that by the, um leaders. We had 50 milliliters So that's that money leaders and I get 5.0 times 10 to the minus third moles of silver. But we had 8 99 jewels for the reaction and we were asked for, um, heat per mole. So we'll have 5.0 times 10 to the minus three moles of silver Do this math and I get one point 80 times 10 to the fifth Jules per mole of silver. And that translates into 1.80 times. Tend to the second killer jewels per mole of silver. So let's look at our reaction. We just calculated that we have 1.80 time to tend to the second killer jewels per mole. But we can see we have a two right here, so I'm gonna have to multiply for my final answer. I'm gonna have to take two times 1.80 times tend to the second killer jewels per mole to get 3.60 times 10 to the second killer jewels per mole of zinc. Okay, problem solved. And let me see here. I want to do one more. Think one more thing, since this is an excellent thermic reaction. Um, we'd probably want to think of this in terms of negative 3.60 times 10 to the second killer jewels per mole. Or you could just say 3.6 year old times send to the second killer jewels per mole. Zinc were released in the reaction.

Okay, so this question is asking us to calculate Ah, the to calculate the entropy change for the given reaction. I'm older basis. So the entropy of reaction Permal. So we know that with the temperature has risen from 19.25 to 22.17 So the change in temperature 0.25 is 2.92 degrees Celsius. That's our change. Ah, we also know that the heat capacity of the calorie meter is in 98.6 jewels bird degrees Celsius. So let's multiply that. Excuse me. It's a 2.92 times 98.6 gives us 287.9 Jules. So that's how much of that's how much energy must have been released by the reaction. So we want to get that into jewels per moller killing joules per mole. Eso. The next thing we need to do is we need to figure out how many moles on this because I'm going to say how many moles of zinc reacted. So we have 0.1 molars. Silver nitrate. Is there a point when Moeller remember, Moeller is just moles per leader. We've got 50 milliliters of that. And of course, there are 1000 milliliters in a leader. And so that tells us that we have zero point 05 or 005 only. Multiply that out real fast. Quote one. Divide by 1000 times 50.5 moles of silver ions. And we have half that many Czink six that are reacting. We only care about the ones that are reacting. The other ones are not introducing any heat into the equation. So the amount of zinc that's reacting is half that which is 0.25 moles. So if we take our to 87.9, we divide by 0.0 25 stools. No, What we get is 7.9 to find by 0.25 uh, 115,000, 160. So I'm going to convert that into killer jewels, so make this a point to, and we make that 115 killer jewels Permal

If you have a balanced equation and enough information to fill up the cuticles equation and solve for Q. Heat, um then you can actually calculate the delta H. The reaction to change in entropy for the reaction. All right. I won't say what sort of information you would need to solve this type of problem. So let's say you had a calorie meter insulated device that you can measure the temperature changes. Okay. Imagine there's a thermometer in here showing you the temperature change. All right, if you had that piece you could add different things to it. Figure out the mass heat capacity and change in temperature and then some for the delta age of the reaction a couple steps. Okay, let's see how we could do that. Um So let's say your Q. Your heat energy is equal to mass times these past few times delta T. A lot of times we have an adequate solution. So, if you have an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid and zinc, because it's a quiz to change the salt and water, the heat capacity is usually very similar to peak capacity of water. So that c it's mostly we can be very close to the heat capacity of water, which is 4.18 jules per gram degree Celsius. When you plug this stuff in the calculator, make sure you have those two things in parentheses because you have to divide by both of them, divide by grands times changing their the degrees Celsius, That's that's simply your seed value. Um Your mess would have to be given to you in some way. Here's two masses they might give you um one, they might tell you that hey, you have a certain amount of zinc. You have certainly grams of zinc, you have 0.103 g. And sick. Okay, will be tempting to use that as your mass for your answer for your um but if I'm talking about this whole system which includes the zinc and then hydrochloric acid mixing together. I technically don't need the massive just the sink. I need the mess of the whole thing. Okay, um this thing is labeled at 50 mL. Let's say this whole piece is 50 mL the water and clear the water. The hydrochloric acid, zinc all are active pieces are 50 millimeters in total. And let's say that the density of that solution is 1.0 g per one minute later. Mhm. Which makes it basically very close. The density of water basically means that if I had 50 mL of this solution, that means I'd also have 50 g of that solution. Okay, yeah, that whole solution. So that includes the zinc and everything else. All right. And let's say the initial temperature of the system was 22 degrees Celsius or 22.5 degrees Celsius. I'm using this asterix Celsius because I don't have a degree symbol of my computer. Alright. And the final temperature end up being 23.7 degrees Celsius. Based off this information. I can actually calculate cute girls and cat and then use that information to solve the delta age of reaction. Okay, let's start filling these values. Yeah. Yeah. Okay. So in this problem, I described us of having a solution about 50 g. Alright. So since there's 50 millimeters and it's one g per one millimeter. Overall the mass of the solution is 50 g. Look, it's true right there. Yeah, I don't use the 0.103 g of zinc because that's only the part of the system. Right? The whole system is the zinc and hydrochloric acid together. That's the whole thing. That's giving off that heat eventually. Okay, the heat capacity of the solution. Um is that seen as the water? The 4.18 jewels for for wanting jewels. Okay, that's program per degree Celsius. Okay. Overall the change in temperature I start at 22.5 and 1 to 23.7. The temperature is increasing right. I like to do final modest initial. Yeah. In my example here only 3.7 minus 22.5. It might change in temperature. I could do this math and solve and simplify it. Or I could just plug this all on my calculator a lot of times. Just for simplicity, uploaded my calculator. Um one thing to keep in mind. So since I'm starting the grams here and dividing by grounds here, those two g gonna cancel out. All right. Um This is changing temperature degrees Celsius. On dividing by degrees Celsius here. Is that degrees Celsius cancel out and eventually be left with a mountain jules jules. Energy after I do this map. 50 times 14 18 times 23.7 minus 22.5. Which is about. What is that? 1.2. Which is equal to a positive change of 1.2. Positive 1.2 for my change in temperature. All right, let's plug this in our check later and find our cue for the reaction or for the reaction that happened in this system. Okay, 50 times 4.18 times 1.2. Give me 250.8 as my energy change. Yeah. Yeah. Ain't That is in jewels, right. Mhm. And about a bing bada boom. That's how many jewels of energy was absorbed by the solution absorbed by the solution here. Okay. Table you're measuring the water in the solution so we can see, okay, this much energy was absorbed by the solution. Now, finding this answer actually isn't my final answer. My delta Each of the reaction. Okay. And here's why the delta H of the reaction applies for a full mobile of zinc. So one mole of zinc ones, the two moles of HDL. And it's going to give this delta H of the reaction. Okay. In my piece right here, actually don't have one mole of sick. Okay, earlier, I mentioned that if 0.103 g of zinc and we didn't use this number as our mass, used the 50 g of the mass because the whole solution was 50 g. But this grams actually is important. Right? Because it helps us tell how many moles of think I initially had. My one mole of sync will be my delta H of reaction. All right. But this isn't a full mole of sink. Okay. Um, zinc has a molar mass of 65.3 g per mole, 65.3 g per mole. Okay. This isn't a full mobile. All right. For more. Is that 60 5.38 g? Okay. Um, I want to calculate this into molds because when in doubt changed two moles. It's always a good bet. Yeah. Yeah, I can use this conversion factor. Multiplying my grams by one bowl divided by 65.38 moles. Which is basically just dividing this number by 65. Right? Um this molar mass right here changes my grams to moles since I'm dividing by grams or cancelling my grams and just give me moles of sink. Okay. And that can help me figure out my delta each other reaction. because my delta agent reaction is per one mole of zinc. And right now this is a per one bowl. It's part of that 0.1032 But by 65 bowls, which if I do that, my calculator. Seriously? Right now that 250.8 g is only accounting for 1575 four moles. And sick, okay, if I convert that scram something, two moles of zinc, technically it's only this many moles of sync what you have. Um luckily if I just do this quick division, it will actually give my adult to each of the reaction to do 2 52 by 5.157454 moles of zinc. It'll give me that final answer. Let's plug them to catch the real quick. Okay. To 50.8 divided by that answer from before. Okay. And that is equal to I want to put this somewhere else because I need more space. I just to lead this stuff from earlier. Okay, that's equal to 159,000 197 jewels of energy per mold. Zeke. Mhm. So I still find that math that goes talented here, right? Um Most time when you do chemistry gets around to start number six figs and that 50.0 millimeters from before. Um all the other stuff I gave you had about three sig figs. Three sig figs are very common. So it's around this 23 Sig figs. So instead 189,197. I use these first three numbers. I keep them the same. And I just, you change these two placeholders make the zeros. It's about 100 and 59,000 jewels per mole of zinc. That's actually the delta age of the reaction. The sensation of the action. Oh, now you want to be careful to sign for the reaction. Um if this thing is giving off heat, if it's heating up the solution, then it should be a negative side because that means that the overall system is releasing heat. Um if it's a positive sign, that means it's absorbing heat and the solution is getting colder. Okay, before I mentioned that the overall solution went from 22 degrees to 23 degrees Celsius, the temperature raised right? Usually we're measuring the temperature of the water there. So the water raised itself in temperature, which means the system was releasing heat because the water absorb that heat and heat it up. So we're gonna use that as a negative 910,000 negative 159,000 jewels, promotes it right.


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