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Please do each questions 3.What mass of oxygen is consumed when 369.3 kJ of energy isreleased from the combination of H2(g) and O2(g)?4.How many kJ are needed to wa...

Question

Please do each questions 3.What mass of oxygen is consumed when 369.3 kJ of energy isreleased from the combination of H2(g) and O2(g)?4.How many kJ are needed to warm 45.0 g of water from 30.00 °Cto 75.00 °C? 6. Consider the following reaction: 4Al(s) + 3MnO2(s)→ 2Al2O3(s)+3Mn(s) Hrxt = - 1789 kJ/moli. Determine the energy released if 17 g of Al are used.ii. What mass of Mn forms when 1000. kJ is detected?

Please do each questions 3.What mass of oxygen is consumed when 369.3 kJ of energy is released from the combination of H2(g) and O2(g)? 4.How many kJ are needed to warm 45.0 g of water from 30.00 °C to 75.00 °C? 6. Consider the following reaction: 4Al(s) + 3MnO2(s)→ 2Al2O3(s) +3Mn(s) Hrxt = - 1789 kJ/mol i. Determine the energy released if 17 g of Al are used. ii. What mass of Mn forms when 1000. kJ is detected?



Answers

Use the following information to answer questions 1-5. $\begin{array}{ll}{\text { Reaction } 1 : \mathrm{N}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4}(l)+\mathrm{H}_{2}(g) \rightarrow 2 \mathrm{NH}_{3}(g)} & {\Delta H=?} \\ {\text { Reaction } 2 : \mathrm{N}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4}(l)+\mathrm{CH}_{4} \mathrm{O}(l) \rightarrow \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g)+\mathrm{N}_{2}(g)+3 \mathrm{H}_{2}(g)} & {\Delta H=-37 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}} \\ {\text { Reaction } 3 : \mathrm{N}_{2}(g)+3 \mathrm{H}_{2}(g) \rightarrow 2 \mathrm{NH}_{3}(g)} & {\Delta H=-46 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}} \\ {\text { Reaction } 4 : \mathrm{CH}_{4} \mathrm{O}(l) \rightarrow \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g)+\mathrm{H}_{2}(g)} & {\Delta H=-65 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}}\end{array}$ What is the enthalpy change for reaction 1$?$ (A) $-148 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}$ (B) $-56 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}$ (C) $-18 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}$ (D) $+148 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}_{\mathrm{rxn}}$

In each part of this problem were given a chemical reaction, and we were also told, But the value of Delta H that is the change in entropy of this reaction is from this information. We want to include this value of Delta H, either on the reactant or product side. We also want to determine whether the reaction is endo thermic or exo thermic, starting with Part A. We see that the value for a Delta H is negative 197.8. Whenever we have a negative value for Delta H, we have to include it on the product side of the given reaction. So we rated like this. The reason that we do that is because this negative sign is referenced from the reaction system and from the perspective of the reaction, a negative value means that that energy is leaving the system, and because of that, it can be concluded that heat is being produced as a result of the reaction. Therefore, making that change in dental P one of the products of the reaction in order to determine whether the reaction is endo thermic or exo thermic. We again look at that sign whether it's positive or negative for the change in entropy. If it's negative like it is in part A, than the reaction is exo thermic. If it were positive and the reaction would be Endo thermic moving on to Part B, we see that the given value for Delta H this time is a positive value. And so it's just the opposite apart. A. We're now that because this is a positive value we included on the reactant side instead of the product side of this reaction. And the reason that we do that again is because this is referenced from the the reaction system itself. So a positive value indicates that we have to. You add that energy into the system in order for it to proceed. So when we add that energy results in a positive value of Delta H and again because Delta H is positive this time, we can classify this reaction. Is Endo thermic because of that positive value? Finally import. See, we see that Delta H is negative, and from what we know from before, that means that it is a product of this reaction so we can include it on the product side 1000 411 killer jewels in this reaction, and also because is negative, we can conclude that this is an exo, thermic reaction.

Whatever you're given an entropy change for reaction or delta age of reaction. Um that can be used as one of your conversion factors to go from energy to something else. Like moles of something or grams or something. I want to see how it works out for this equation. Okay, this balanced equation in this still to age of reaction looks kind of complicated. All right, saying two moles of this substance, which is nitro methane is the methane group with no too attached to it. Nitro methane reacts with 1.5 moles of oxygen gas to produce two moles of carbon dioxide, three moles of water and one mole of nitrogen gas. Okay, when all this happens, the change in entropy is negative 1418 killer jewels of energy. When all these things combined, that ratio I will never have a negative delta H. That means I'm releasing energy in my processes, eggs a thermic. And when I'm releasing energy, that means I'm producing that. It's like I'm adding the energy to this side. Okay, Okay. Let's talk about how you can use this information to solve a problem. Here's how I like to lay it out. When I'm trying to solve problems, I like to have a conversion factor um which is different things that are equal to each other that we used to convert units. Right? It's definitely this negative 14 18 killed jules. Yeah. Um is equal to each of these moller scenarios. Right? Let's focus on the nature of methane. That's more complicated one. When it releases this much energy, that means that exactly two moles of that nitro methane have to have burned. Okay, so that means two moles of that CH three. It's supposed to be a little three, but it's where my thing writes it. N. 02 has been burned. Okay. Is that much change? So this is definitely the conversion factor that can be used to convert from killer jewels, two moles of this substance. Okay. For every 1400 relax with two moles of that suffer. Two moles of that stuff is consumed. Um If I want to still find this ratio I could, that basically means for one mole. If I cut this in half, cut this number and half would be like 709 killer jewels or just one mole but there's no reason to I can just leave it as these two things is this ratio works fine. Yeah. Um when I'm solving problems, typically I'm giving either moles or grands so it is good to know the molar mass of the substance. I want a catholic that I would like my pieces Ch three and 02 I'd say. Okay, what's this molar mass? How many grams is that? Okay, well I have carbon. Which is about 12. I have three hydrants hydrants. Which one? It's one times three. So that's basically three g. There night trains 14 g. Um option is 16. I have two oxygen's of 16 times two equals 32. I had all these pieces together my head. I'll do it this way. That's 15. Okay, that's 29. Okay. It's basically 30 plus 31 61 g in total. Damn right. G. Ch three. Yeah. So I'm doing conversions. I can keep these things in mind. I've even so 51 step further and be like, hey, if one will of this equals 61 g, that means two moles is going to be equal to double that. Yeah, 122 g of that substance. I could use that as another conversion factor if I want to go from grand smalls to Energy because that is my one number. There's a lot of ways to do this. These having these things that are equal to each other like this spot right here. These three things right here that just gives us ways to convert from one piece to another. Okay, now I could have the unit any of these units. My starting peace. If you can hear it from anything to anything else. Okay, um let's start with grabs. Let's say they gave you 5.56 kg of a substance of the nitro methane. That's C H three N. 02 Yeah. And they wanted you to convert that into how much energy is going to be produced this much, many kilograms of the substance ends up reacting. So instead of just having 100 and 22 kg react. Which reduced 1400 kg of energy. They want you to react 5.56 kg of that substance instead. Yeah. A lot of times the questions will try to figure out this way um Instead of using grams, they'll use kilograms. It really just adds one extra step in the solving process. Okay, let's look at that set now. It's like if you were giving kilograms instead of grams but your conversion factor is based off grounds, you'll need to convert your kilograms to grants. Okay. Really simple process. Do that. Um What you shouldn't memorize is that 1000 g is equal to one kg? Okay. It means I can use these two numbers as a conversion factor um When I'm converting one thing to another, I always divide by the unit that I have. So I had kilograms right now. So I want to get rid of kilograms. Like the one from that conversion factor on bottom. L but the 1000 on top. It's also really convened to know that when you're multiplying by 1000 you're just like moving the decimal place. Um So since I have three zeros, I technically moving to displace three spots over. Right? So we end up being 5560 g. Right? That's a good thing to know when you're doing those conversions. Um Let's not worry about that for now. Let's say I want to go from these kilograms into kill jewels of energy. Um It's gonna be a multi step problem because one I need grams typically from Graham's like go to molds one way to do it. Okay, we now have grams of this substance. So just like before I need to get rid of those grants that substance, I would need a conversion factor that gets rid of them. Um I'm gonna use this bottom one right here. The one mole to 61 g to do that. Uh huh. So you divide by 61 g of C. H. Three N. 02 And that's equal to one mould the one moment on top for my conversion factor. Yeah. Trying to extend this line a little bit real quick. Okay. And what I've done so far is I've cancelled my kilograms. Then I have cancelled out my grams of C. H. Three N. L. Two. Right? My grands of that substance right there. Right now I have moles about substance. Uh I did this math 5.56 times 1000. About 5 61. I'd end up with how many moles of CH three or two are needed to produce for having moles that substances right there. All right. But if I want to know how much energy was produced, I would have to add one more step here and that would be to cancel the moles and figure out how much energy that is. And what I know from the delta H interaction is that two moles of that substance? So again, I can set the moles for now. Two moles of that substance is equal to that negative 14, 18 killer jewels. And again, I got the two from the balanced chemical equation. The delta of the reaction describes two moles and 1.5 molds and two moles and three moles and one mole all forming and reacting together to form this much energy. Right? So this much energy is related to those two moles from the balanced chemical equation. That's where I got the two from. Uh when I do this math here, that will convert by units from moles into those killer jewels that I want. A total energy. Okay, Everything on top, you multiply by. Everything on the bottom. You divide by. So we plug this in our calculator. How I would do, it would be 5.56 times 1000 times one. Don't have to multiply by one. But you can tons negative 14, 18. And I can divide by everything that's on bottom, divided by one, divide by 61. And also divide by that too. Okay, when I plug all this is my calculator, I got negative 64,000 623. You can run, it's actually 23.6. I could run that to 24. Okay, The unit is going to be killed jules. It's gonna be killer jewels because that stuff right there. Right. And now tell me how many killers will be produced from this many grams or kilograms of that reacted. Um Typically I do want to keep Sig Figs significant digits. Um since my starting piece has three sig figs And multiplying dividing by conversion factors, I would want three Sig figs, my final answer also. So I would just keep these first three significant digits here and these other two guys will just change the placeholders. So instead of 64,624 I'm just going around that to 64,600 shows you how many killed jewels are produced when this many things react. Okay. Uh no, I did this in three steps, you could actually do it in two. The way you do it in two is you would use this concept up here and instead of doing divide by 61 then divide by two over here and multiply those parts one mould, you can actually get rid of the moles here and end up doing this 1400 on top right here. And since we know that sequence 122 g, I could just put this 1 22 here and this. These two steps will give me the same answer as those three steps. Basically the third step divided by two again. So instead divided by 61 then divided by two. Used divide by 122. And that gives you that same final answer of 64,600. All right. So looks really complicated. But really these are just numbers for conversion factors. You're just giving you pieces for conversion factors. Okay, I like to do it like this. So I typically ignore the molar mass one and just use these three as my conversion factors because that's usually the fastest two steps instead of three steps. Okay, I good luck

So here we have the balanced equation for the formation of gashes Water. This is two moles of die atomic hydrogen gas plus one mole of die Atomic oxygen gas will give you two moles of gashes Water Now here in the problem. We're looking to have only one mole of the water forms. I'm going to do that. We know have to divide by two to cancel out this coefficient. So to rewrite this balanced equation, then we divide all the coefficients by two. When we get one more of die atomic hydrogen gas plus 1/2 mole of die atomic oxygen gas will produce one mole of gashes H 20 And we know that this formation here of the gashes water is eggs. Oh, thermic due to the fact that we have heat released and that heat released is given at negative 241.8 killer jewels. Now we know this is negative again because he is being given off and it is eggs a thermic Now we also have a second reaction which is almost a nearly identical. Except we're forming liquid water as our final product. And this also has an entropy change that involves giving off he So we have a delta h change here. It's gonna be negative again. And this is negative. 285 0.8 killer jewels. So the goal of this problem is to find the improbably change of vaporization Delta H fat. No. We're gonna find that we need to look at the equation for vaporization, which is when we have liquid water. We have some heat introduced to the system to bring the liquid water past the boiling point in which becomes vaporized and becomes gashes. Now, in order to find our delta H, uh, vaporization, we can use houses law and we can see that the Delta H of vaporization is going to be equal to the sum of all the in puppies in each step previous. So, if we look first at the product, the final gashes water, which is what we want here on the right side of the equation, we know we already have the end pulpy. Here we go back to the beginning. Now this temple P here represents the energy given off when one mole of gashes water is made as a product which is what we have here. We have the same one mole of gashes, water being made of as a product. So we know that we can keep the negative sign. And we have our negative 241.8 killer jewels. And then we go back to the vaporization and we see here that we have Our water is liquid on the left side of the equation. Now we have an employee p for the formation of liquid water here, but we notice it's on the right side of the equation. So we know if we want to use this simple p when we're gonna look at the reverse reaction where the liquid water is actually a reactant. And if we're gonna do look at the reverse reaction, we know we have to flip signs, so we're gonna have to flip this negative into a positive, but we're gonna have the same value. So we flip it to a positive, we're gonna be adding to 85.5 Killer Joe. Oh, sorry. This is supposed to be in eight 25.8 Kelly jewels, giving it a total impossibly change of vaporization to be exactly 44 going zero killer jewels. So this delta H vaporization represents the energy needed to be inputted into the system with one mole liquid water to turn it into one mole gashes water. And this here is our final and four P.

This is a Hess's Law calculation where we are given information associated with two chemical reactions and we are to use this information to figure out the delta H. For another chemical reaction, the first chemical reaction is the formation of one mole of H 20. Gas. The balanced chemical react from its elements. The balanced chemical reaction would be H two plus one half 02 gas goes to H 20. Gas. Delta H. Is negative 241.8 killer jewels. The next reaction is the formation of one mole of H 20 liquid from its elements. The Delta H. for this process is negative, 285 8 killer jewels. So to figure out the delta H uh vaporization of water, we want water is a liquid going to water is a gas. To get this will reverse this reaction. When we do that, the elements will cancel and we will have liquid water going to gaseous water reversing this reaction changes the sign from negative to positive. Within some up our Delta H values and we get 44.0 killer jewels.


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