5

A certain large population is found to exhibit a frequency of3% for an autosomal recessive trait, i.e. 3 people out of100, on average, have the trait. Assume 100%p...

Question

A certain large population is found to exhibit a frequency of3% for an autosomal recessive trait, i.e. 3 people out of100, on average, have the trait. Assume 100%penetrance and that the alleles are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Calculate the expected carrierfrequency. Show your work.When actually tested, it was found that the carrier frequencywas 15%. Suggest one possible explanation for thisnon-equilibrium value.Justify your answer

A certain large population is found to exhibit a frequency of 3% for an autosomal recessive trait, i.e. 3 people out of 100, on average, have the trait. Assume 100% penetrance and that the alleles are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Calculate the expected carrier frequency. Show your work. When actually tested, it was found that the carrier frequency was 15%. Suggest one possible explanation for this non-equilibrium value. Justify your answer



Answers

Allele $B$ is a deleterious autosomal dominant. The frequency of affected individuals is $4.0 \times 10^{-6}$. The reproductive capacity of these individuals is about 30 percent that of normal individuals. Estimate $\mu$, the rate at which $b$ mutates to its deleterious allele $B$. Assume that the frequencies of the alleles are at their equilibrium values.

Question, and I value to look at the table as we go through this. I'm not gonna redraw the table. I'm just gonna go through this very quickly. Um, and, uh, make a few comments and a few notes as we go along the way here. But there's a lot to cover. So, um, when you look at these questions, you have to write whether they're in Hardy Weinberg or not. So the 1st 1 you could see everybody has a big A alil. So P is one. Hugh is zero. So there it's already where? Equilibrium? Because you wouldn't expect there to be any headers, I guess. Er, almost like it's recessive. Um, for the 2nd 1 the answer's no. It's non in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And the reason is that there headers, I guess turn, you'd expect when they, uh, mate and have offspring that some of those offspring would be. Homer Side gets for three answers. Yes, it is in hardy Wonder equilibrium and again, for the same reason is Number one is for four. It's not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and you can simply do the basic math year to get P and Q. It's a little bit tedious, but not terrible for five. Again, not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And if you look at those numbers, we would expect there to be more headers. I goods. And we're not getting that. Um, so again, these numbers here with people, he 375 and 0.6 to 5. All right, uh, for six. Um, this was also yes. As I lose track on my notes, this one was in Hardy Weinberg younger. And and you can win in their in equilibrium All you have to do to get the peace accused Take the square root of, ah, say the on the percentage proportion of him is, I guess, recesses. That'll give you Q And then you could just solve for P. So that's pretty straightforward. For seven. This is not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. You look at it. It's just such a strange set of numbers. I'm something is going on, um, and solving for it, you're gonna have half the Leo's will be, Uh ah. Big A and half will be little a eight is. Yes, it isn't Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And again, it's easy when there are anywhere in your columbarium because you just have to take the square root. Let's say the number of from his, I guess in proportion of home a psychic processes to get the values, um, nine is yes, and it's simply the reverse of the number eight. So that's pretty straightforward. And then, finally, Number 10 has a tiny numbers involved with it, but it isn't Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and that's plain 993 and playing 007 So that's a and B here. And in the questions, um, see is asking about unquestioned six. Um, remember the formulas here, and this is the mutation over selection formula of the balance. And then the selection coefficient equation, which is s equals one minus w and were given mu is five times 10 to the nine s six. So that's the mutation rate. And then we can solve for Q. Um, because where we have Q from the the questions were 4.9 times 10 to the minus fifth. Something like that, um, that we just have to play the sort of it equations in. That's you square. So, um so if we use this equation here, we have 4.9 times 10 to the minus fifth equals the mutation rate, which is five times 10 to the minus six. All right, it by s. And so if we saw for s, we get a value of 102 So there's some decker mint. There is selection acting against this Leo, and then we're just unplug s into this equation here. So, um, point 0.102 equals one minus w. And again, this is this equation here I'm using. Ah, And if we saw for W, we get 0.898 So that what we were shooting for in this question, and then finally d um, there's a little bit tedious, uh, and were given values or fitness of one. And then for the headers I goat. Well, you was 0.8 and then for the homeless, I guess. Recess, Ivo, it's 0.6. Um, and we're interested in trying to calculate p crime. That is the frequency of P and the following generation. Um, so they're different ways to do this, but I'm gonna use that to formula approach. First, I'm gonna calculate average fitness, and this is a formula that's in the textbook where you have P squared names. The Fitness of the Homicide, its dominant plus two p Q and the fitness of the Headers. I Go plus Q squared and the fitness of the home is that it's recessive and these air just frequencies cow times, a fitness values. And of course, that's going to give you your average fitness. And so if you plunge these numbers in and for time reasons, uh, I'm not going to, um, you end up with a value of 0.8, right? So this number goes here and then for peace squared, remember that will just be 0.5 and shoes squared would between five squared and those air those point fires come from the table about. So the average fitness is gonna re 0.8 and then we're going to use in that value, which we needed in our second equation. And again, this is from the textbook Ah, where you multiply the fitness of the homeless. I guess Tom meant going to pee and the fitness of the headers I go and divided by the average fitness that we just calculated. So keep prime equals 0.5, and again, that's from the table above, and we want to play all that by 0.5 times one. So that was the fitness of W. A. A. That's appear, plus Q. Just also 0.5, and to fitness of the um, header is I go. And that's 0.8. That's appear. And then if we divide that by the average fitness, which we just calculated his 0.8 a 0.8 and we do that math, then we get a P prime value or the P and the next generation of 25 6 I think the question asked us What the value for Q. Is that people cubicles one. We know that then the Q prime value will be zero point for for so ah, long question with a lot of work involved.

Here we have a question regarding Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. So we are given the low frequency of Alil Capital B, and that is equal to 0.7. Now, what we have to do to solve this question is to look at our to Hardy Weinberg equations. And for our first part, we need to determine the olio frequency of lower case. Be so what we would do. We take our 0.7, we plug it into the first equation, and we see that 0.7 plus lower case B equals one. So now salt for B and we see that B equals 0.3. So now, knowing these two facts were able to use the second equation to determine the olio frequencies of the hetero zygotes, the Homo Zegas dominance and the homo Saugus recesses. So all we have to do is we simply plug in for our hetero zygotes. We know that this would be a capital being a lower case, being being one dominant only on one recessive Leo, we plug in Teoh, find the little frequency of this. So a little frequency we plug in from our second equation this term right here so we'll bring it down to be so that's the legal frequency of Capital B, which is 0.7 times the olio frequency of lower case be, which is 0.3. So we get to time 0.7 times 0.3, which equals 0.42 So that will be the frequency of our hetero Zongo's. Right now we have to figure out the frequency for our home owes, I guess. Dominance. Okay, Our homeless, I guess dominance will be to capital these and, uh, to figure this one out, we would just simply once again plug in the term from our second party Weinberg equation into Ah, plug it in right here. So we find that b squared equals our olio frequency. So we take the illegal frequency of B capital B, we square it, and that is equal to 0.49 So 0.49 will be the frequency for our homo Zegas dominance. And then we need to find the frequency for our homeless. I guess Recesses actually do that right next to it. So our home owes, I guess recessive, remember, Since their recessive, they will have to recess Civil wheels since they're homeless, I guess, um And now we just take this term right here and we bring it down and we find that B squared is equal to our legal frequency for lower case be, which we found to be 0.3. And we're just going to square that and we get 0.9 as our answer for our home was, I guess recessive olio. Ah, frequency. So are three answers would be 0.42 0.49 and 0.9 And the, um, the Gino types for those would be as follows. We have capital be lower case be than to capital these where home was August dominance. And to lower case be for our homeless, I guess processes.

Hi there. Um, today we're talking about, uh, lethal wheels and autism. A recessive lethal wheels Be more precise. So it talks about First off, it tells you when these genetic problems, whether or not it's a randomly mating population, kind of important. Um, this one is says it's large. So there is no like selection here on whether or not people made with this one. So this lethal wheels frequency is point to share work down here. Um, Lee folios wrote, usually by a cursive lower case. L um so our normal, um, frequency of a normal and Neil Alil. Sorry. Had a little bit of a word jumper there. Um is one minus l the curse of l for the lethal liel. So you can figure it out that it is one minus l That's equation. I put right there. And then I did one minus zero point to which equals zero point eight genotype frequencies. Next. So this is Hamas. August Dominant. Um, big l big l 0.8. You take the normal frequency. Elio Square. It equals 0.64 The hetero Saugus two times, two times 0.8 times the 0.2, which equals 0.32 Um, a little a little l 0.2 squared equals 0.4 but right, this is normal until we realize this is a lethal one. So it's special because all of these individuals are going to die. They are dead. Now, this is a lethal Leo. And this process of Onley the ones that are a little, a little oh, will die. So now we have to figure out their frequency, considering that point. Oh, for the population is dead. So, um, he could have just done subtraction here. I wanted to show my work. Show you basically why I was, ah, writing this out as 0.96 So it's the frequency of the hetero zegas and the Hamas. August dominant. So 0.64 plus 0.3 to 0.6 4/0 0.96 which equals 0.6667 roughly for the head arose again. 0.6 2/0 0.96 Just kind of skip that step, which equals your 0.333 Um, next off we have this is the import and important in equation dealing with the Olympic frequency. And you have to take the genotype frequency, which is Hamas, I guess. Recessive plus one half times Hamas, I guess. I mean hetero Zika's. Sorry, what I say homeless. Um, the hetero Saugus one, which in this case would be zero because they all are dead. Right? Plus one. Halftime. 0.333 The answer is 0.66 You go around a 0.17 if you'd like. Thio. Um, this is kind of a trick question. It's just basically trying to trick you and to not

But they say right off the bat, you know, we're gonna do some math. So we know that to Pete. I'm sorry that 0.2 is the frequency of a particular Lille. And we want to know the carrier frequency or the headers, I guess. Carrier frequency battle eel. So the equations that we're gonna use come from Hardy Weinberg, so P squared plus two cume plus Hugh Square Q squared equals one. So we need to define what these numbers mean. So this 1st 1 right here, Peace Square would be the frequency of healthy individuals, right? So we usually think like the dominant sums healthy. That's usually what we're talking about his disease or not. Disease two p cume is the frequency of our carriers. So this is what we're trying to look for you in this particular equation. So how many people are carriers for that particular trait or disease, but are not affected from it? So still showing the dominant traits pretty much and Q squared is the frequency of the individuals who show that disease, um, trade. So I mean again, it is have to be disease. It could be anything that's recessive, but Basically, these are recessive people. So when we say that a trait has a carrier frequency or are sorry that the frequency oven Alil and a particular population we're talking about either p mork you so not Q squared, not peace squared because those would be the frequency of individuals. This is a frequency of the alil. So with this particular Leo, we can use P or Q. It doesn't really matter. I'm just gonna say p who cares? It literally doesn't matter. So if the frequency of P is point to, then we're gonna need to find out what P I mean, what Q is and then multiply that by two in order to get to peek you, which would be our carrier. So we have another equation. You have another equation for Hardy Weinberg, and it's this one p plus q equals one. So with that, we could just go ahead and plug in our 0.2. So we know then that Q with an equal 0.8, right, so their 0.8 plus 0.2 would equal one. So now we have Q. And now we have p. So me change colors here. So you know what we're doing. So to peak you would then equal Zeer two times 0.2 times 0.8. So only did. Here was plug in RP and play in our Q and again to P. Q. Is our carrier frequency so we can just say carrier here now? So our carrier frequency or the answer to this question I'm gonna pull out a calculator because I am not about to do that in my head. So two times 0.2 times 0.8 is zero point three to. So what that means is that 32% of the population are carriers, or 0.32 of the population are carriers for that particular olio. So the little pop, the little frequency is 0.2 and our carrier frequency, then it is 0.32 That's her answer.


Similar Solved Questions

5 answers
5 < 2 < 9 otherwiseLet f(z) ={Enter Fraction or Decimal 0.1234What is E(X)?b. What is Var(X)What is P[6 <X < 9]d.What is P[6<X<8]What is PIX<8/X>6]
5 < 2 < 9 otherwise Let f(z) ={ Enter Fraction or Decimal 0.1234 What is E(X)? b. What is Var(X) What is P[6 <X < 9] d.What is P[6<X<8] What is PIX<8/X>6]...
5 answers
Find the general solution of the differential equation r (t) (2 _ Wt)i + IOtj: (Use symbolic notation and fractions where needed. Give your answer in the form (x(t) YO), 2()) )rlt) =+CFind the solution with the initial condition r(O) [Oi 6k.(Use symbolic notation and fractions where needed. Give your answer in the form (x(t), Yt), z()))r(t)
Find the general solution of the differential equation r (t) (2 _ Wt)i + IOtj: (Use symbolic notation and fractions where needed. Give your answer in the form (x(t) YO), 2()) ) rlt) = +C Find the solution with the initial condition r(O) [Oi 6k. (Use symbolic notation and fractions where needed. Give...
4 answers
R' be the linear transformation given by Lt:R' _ 4+6n - S n 11 21 * An+"1 1) Dotermine ff T is onc-to-one Explain your #nswer_b) Determine if the vectorig in the range of T_
R' be the linear transformation given by Lt:R' _ 4+6n - S n 11 21 * An+"1 1) Dotermine ff T is onc-to-one Explain your #nswer_ b) Determine if the vector ig in the range of T_...
5 answers
H13 and H14Highlight H13 and Hia
H13 and H14 Highlight H13 and Hia...
5 answers
9) Use the ratio test: 2 3n '() 5 8 = 3n! n=
9) Use the ratio test: 2 3n '() 5 8 = 3n! n=...
5 answers
Suppose $2.511 mathrm{~g}$ of a hydrocarbon is burned completely to form $7.720 mathrm{~g}$ carbon dioxide and $3.612 mathrm{~g}$ water.(a) Determine the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon.(b) Identify whether it is an alkane or an alkene.(c) Writc a plausible L.cwis structurc for it.
Suppose $2.511 mathrm{~g}$ of a hydrocarbon is burned completely to form $7.720 mathrm{~g}$ carbon dioxide and $3.612 mathrm{~g}$ water. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon. (b) Identify whether it is an alkane or an alkene. (c) Writc a plausible L.cwis structurc for it....
1 answers
Solve each system by substitution. $$ \begin{array}{c} 2 y-7 x=-14 \\ 4 x-y=7 \end{array} $$
Solve each system by substitution. $$ \begin{array}{c} 2 y-7 x=-14 \\ 4 x-y=7 \end{array} $$...
5 answers
18. CalC8cO2a 10 pts possible Evaluate the integral1. [ =3I =dx _ V2 - ~I22 [ =3 TT1 3 I = 6 T4 [ =8 1 5. [ = 4 T
18. CalC8cO2a 10 pts possible Evaluate the integral 1. [ = 3 I = dx _ V2 - ~I2 2 [ = 3 TT 1 3 I = 6 T 4 [ = 8 1 5. [ = 4 T...
5 answers
For the following graph; detenine the following function and limit values, along with the continuity of certain x-values: (12 pts)f(-2) =f() =lim f (x) =lim f (x) = 1,0lim f (x) = {+0lim f (x) =
For the following graph; detenine the following function and limit values, along with the continuity of certain x-values: (12 pts) f(-2) = f() = lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 1,0 lim f (x) = {+0 lim f (x) =...
4 answers
What is the relationship between the threshold and an action potential?
What is the relationship between the threshold and an action potential?...
1 answers
The Never Summer Infinity 149 snowboard has a running length of $1160 \mathrm{mm}$ and a sidecut depth of $23.5 \mathrm{mm}$ (see Exercise 82 ). What radius is used for the edge of this snowboard?
The Never Summer Infinity 149 snowboard has a running length of $1160 \mathrm{mm}$ and a sidecut depth of $23.5 \mathrm{mm}$ (see Exercise 82 ). What radius is used for the edge of this snowboard?...
5 answers
A) Explain single-slit diffraction in detail and in your own words 6) Explain double-slit diffraction in detail and in your own words
a) Explain single-slit diffraction in detail and in your own words 6) Explain double-slit diffraction in detail and in your own words...
5 answers
0 W 0 6 0 0 0 & 0 < 30 57714 10V 4286 Jw cepacitor charged10v and then connected 1capacitor: What the final potential difierence 1 1 1
0 W 0 6 0 0 0 & 0 < 30 57714 10V 4286 Jw cepacitor charged 10v and then connected 1 capacitor: What the final potential difierence 1 1 1...
5 answers
2. Find the length of the portion of the curve given by c(t) = (4et/2,et _ t) about the X-axis for 0 < t <2. Assume that x and y are measured in meters and time is measured in seconds:
2. Find the length of the portion of the curve given by c(t) = (4et/2,et _ t) about the X-axis for 0 < t <2. Assume that x and y are measured in meters and time is measured in seconds:...
5 answers
Solve the wave equationUt7 curx = sin (x) , 0 <x < L,t > 0, c is a constant,subject to boundary conditionsJu(0,t) =t, U,(L,t) =tand initial conditionsu(x,0) = cos(x) u(x,0) = 0
Solve the wave equation Ut7 curx = sin (x) , 0 <x < L,t > 0, c is a constant, subject to boundary conditions Ju(0,t) =t, U,(L,t) =t and initial conditions u(x,0) = cos(x) u(x,0) = 0...
5 answers
QUESTION z0What i5 the biological significance of the Catabolite Repression described Questions *18 and *192 T I $ Paragraph Arial (12pt) * 0 0KattuptParh:
QUESTION z0 What i5 the biological significance of the Catabolite Repression described Questions *18 and *192 T I $ Paragraph Arial (12pt) * 0 0 Kattupt Parh:...
5 answers
Supooaa HL = 1 Oepth mnourn 1 1 U 1 '0 depsotor) MlhClaat V Aqum 1
Supooaa HL = 1 Oepth mnourn 1 1 U 1 '0 depsotor) MlhClaat V Aqum 1...
5 answers
Whlch 0f the following cells Is not plurlpotent?Multiple ChoiceES cellsEG cellsNone of tnese choices are pluripotentBoth ES &and EG are pluripotent
Whlch 0f the following cells Is not plurlpotent? Multiple Choice ES cells EG cells None of tnese choices are pluripotent Both ES &and EG are pluripotent...

-- 0.018999--