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Acell has acquired a mutation where its Ran proteins can no longer hydrolyze GTP: Which of the following will most likely uppen?Translation of mitochondrial mRNAs w...

Question

Acell has acquired a mutation where its Ran proteins can no longer hydrolyze GTP: Which of the following will most likely uppen?Translation of mitochondrial mRNAs will be impaircdFilipodia formation will be unaffectcdTranslation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs will bc unaffectcdCell migration will bc impaired

Acell has acquired a mutation where its Ran proteins can no longer hydrolyze GTP: Which of the following will most likely uppen? Translation of mitochondrial mRNAs will be impaircd Filipodia formation will be unaffectcd Translation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs will bc unaffectcd Cell migration will bc impaired



Answers

A researcher isolates mutant variants of the bacterial translation factors IF2, EF-Tu, and EF-G. In each case, the mutation allows proper folding of the protein and the binding of GTP but does not allow GTP hydrolysis. At what stage would translation be blocked by each mutant protein?

So this question is how a single gene could encode multiple um m r. It's So here's an example of a gene. Uh uh, just a simple sequence of DNA, and we know that this will get transcribed into M R N A. But member that Amar in a, uh is composed of both both in Theron's and Exxon ts. I've drawn the Exxons here in various colors and then the introns here in black. So, uh, this, uh, transcript will always get transcribed from the same gene sequence. That won't change. But what can change is how this gene is spliced. So that's called alternative splicing. And it basically says that this place is own. These thes proteins that attach to the splice junctions can actually make choices about which, uh, in drones to remove. So in this case, one transcript that could get formed is if, ah, the entrance are simply removed themselves, and that would result. And the full length transcript getting made red, green, blue. But there's there's also another option. Uh, this transcript could get spliced alternatively, s O that this place junction meets with displaced junction and removes this spring Exxon. So the resulting Amarna tickets produced is quite different from the first time our name we made which included this middle Exxon. But this different product is a, uh is a second m r in a way that could get derived from the same gene s o the correct answer. This question is be that alternative Amarna displacing can result in formation of different Amar Nate's from this Angie.

This question asks. The Eukaryotic cell has been found to exhibit a truncation mutation that created an active Arnie problem plum race one enzyme. Which type of IRA will be affected by this inactivation. Our Arne ta arne snr in A or B 10 are in a well, it turns out that aren't a claim. Aries right is going to be used in transcription and transcription will occur both in terms of the DNA that will be transcribed into M R and a but specifically aren't a problem. Race one will have a very important role in transcribing DNA into our Rivasseau Mo are in a so this will occur in the nuclear OAS, right? That is where Rivasseau Mornay is going to be synthesized. And this will occur like we said in the presence of our in April in race one, so which aren't is going to be most affected. Well, since our on a plane race, one is going to the one that is doing. We will see a very the man its impact on the quantity of rivals over are in it. That means that our nation will be most affected, making choice a the correct answer

What happens when you mutate? E I f too. Okay. What is e? I have to e i f stands for eukaryotic initiation factor. Okay, so it is an initiation factor that is found in Eukaryotic organisms. What does it initiate? It initiates. Translation. So here the keys. Aire not drawn in this committee, they're not written out. But we have the initiation factor too. Right there. The initiation factor to binds to G t p gtp, um is an energy carrier molecule like 80 p, but with ah g instead of eight. Ah, the Iaw. To binds to GDP, it binds to a host of other initiation factors and it binds to the small sub unit off the ribosomes. Remember, the ribosomes is the machinery that carries out the translation of are in a two protein. So and that machinery has two sub units, a small sub unit and a big sub unit. So this is part of the rival's home here. So the initiation factor through binds the GDP. Ah, host of other initiation factors and to the small rival symbol. Sub unit wants that Ah, once that complex is in place. M r N a and T are in a joined the party to then give you this complex right here. So in this complex right here, we have the small. So let me switch colors here since we're at a new stage. So we still have the small sub unit here. The initiation factor to hear that we are in a and the GDP wants. All of this is in place. The big right. So this is the other arrival. So most of unit down here. Okay, this guy now joins the party. And when the big rapper's almost up unit comes there, you get V, uh, harnessing off that third phosphate from GDP so that third phosphate gets broken off. So this is where the energy is harnessed in this entire operation. And once that big rifle several sub unit finds I have to the initiation factor too, along with all of the other initiation factors. Engine, they go away. They have done their job. Their entire job was to bring the TR in a the Marin A and the two rival symbol sub Q knits together. Okay, so this is the overall process. So a mutation in the eye of two ah would be detrimental if it prevented any of these interactions. Okay, so now let's look at our answer choices. Choice A. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from binding to Rene that would absolutely stop translation. If you can't bind to are in a there's no translation with our navy. Arnie is what is being translated. So that is not our correct choice, because so again, read the question carefully. We are looking for the one that would not be affected so binding two are in a would be affected, so that's not what we're looking for. Choice be. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from being force formulated. Let's look back at our schematic here. Is there a forceful relation off the high F two at any point in here? No. The only place that phosphate is involved is when that third phosphate is cleaved from GTP, resulting in GDP plus phosphate. So initiation factor is not first poorly, so Choice B is the one that would not be affected because that doesn't happen, so it looks like choice bees are correct. Answer. Let's look at the others to make sure that they wouldn't be affected. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from binding to GDP. That would absolutely effect translation. Because GPS will provide the energy without the energy, you can't jump start the process. Choice D. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from biting to the small rival SOMO sub units. Ah, and that is also correct because that's, uh or that is also absolutely needed. So it's if that is affected, this can't happen, which means it's not the correct choice, either. So Choice B is the only thing that talks about an aspect that would not be affected if the initiation factor to was mutated.

So there was a study performed on rats that looked at the difference between calm and anxious adult rats and why that was the case. So they found that, um, baby rats that were nurtured and groomed, um, by the mother grew up to be calmer. While, um, rats that were more ignored by their mother grew up to be more anxious. And they found that this actually has to do with epi genetics of the G R gene, which is the glucocorticoids receptor gene. So at birth, this gene is highly methylated in rats. And I drew this, um, these little metal groups right here, the kind of like lollipops. And so it's highly methylated, which would make the gene and active. And they found that when a rat was highly nurtured, this would start to de meth elite. So then now the gene would become active. While these anxious rats these ones that were ignored, they kept these metal groups so it did not be mentally. And, um, it remained inactive in the rats adulthood. So you would see that if a rat was highly nurtured when they were younger than thes, method groups would no job kind of fall off or dim Italy, and it would make this gene active


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