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Proteins are made up of smaller parts (or monomers) called_________________. All contain a central carbon to which isattached a _________________________, _________...

Question

Proteins are made up of smaller parts (or monomers) called_________________. All contain a central carbon to which isattached a _________________________, __________________________,__________________________ and a variable group called an__________________ (or side chain) that makes each amino acidunique. The side chain determines the chemical nature (e.g.acidic, basic, polar, nonpolar) of the amino acid and how it willinteract with other substances.A polymer of many amino acids is called a___

Proteins are made up of smaller parts (or monomers) called _________________. All contain a central carbon to which is attached a _________________________, __________________________, __________________________ and a variable group called an __________________ (or side chain) that makes each amino acid unique. The side chain determines the chemical nature (e.g. acidic, basic, polar, nonpolar) of the amino acid and how it will interact with other substances. A polymer of many amino acids is called a ____________________________. It is formed when two ________________ are joined during a _________________ reaction. This reaction involves the _____________ group of the first amino acid and the ____________ group of the second amino acid. The bond that forms is a ____________________ bond (specifically called a _______________________). Proteins have four levels of structure. The primary structure consist of a unique sequence of _________________________ held together by peptide bonds and forms the ____________________ chain. If one of these amino acids is altered because of a mutation, the _____________________ of the protein may change and thus affect its function, as in the case of sickle cell anemia. The secondary structure results because of folding caused by interaction between different amino acids in different regions of the chain. The two types of folding are called __________________________ and ________________________. They are held together by _______________ bonds. The tertiary structure is a ___________________________________ shape that is stabilized by interactions between the _________________of different amino acids. There are several types of bonds present in the tertiary structure. This includes _______________ bonds, ___________________ bonds, ____________________ interactions, and special covalent bonds called _____________________________ that form via the _____ groups of two cysteine amino acids. The fourth level is the quaternary structure in which a protein is formed by the association of _________________ polypeptides. For example, _____________________, which transports oxygen in our blood, is composed of _________ polypeptides. What are some factors that can permanently change the shape of a protein? Why is this of concern? Such a change in shape is called ___________________________________. The shape and function of polysaccharides differ because of the type of glycosidic linkages, which are ______________________ and ________________________. For example, starch has _______________ linkages whereas cellulose has ________________________ linkages.



Answers

Proteins are naturally occurring polymers formed by condensation reactions of amino acids, which have the general structure In this structure, $-\mathrm{R}$ represents $-\mathrm{H},-\mathrm{CH}_{3},$ or another group of atoms; there are 20 different natural amino acids, and each has one of 20 different $\mathrm{R}$ groups. (a) Draw the general structure of a protein formed by condensation polymerization of the generic amino acid shown here. (b) When only a few amino acids react to make a chain, the product is called a "peptide" rather than a protein; only when there are 50 amino acids or more in the chain would the molecule be called a protein. For three amino acids (distinguished by having three different $\mathrm{R}$ groups, $\mathrm{R} 1, \mathrm{R} 2,$ and $\mathrm{R} 3$ , draw the peptide that results from their condensation reactions. (c) The order in which the $\mathrm{R}$ groups exist in a peptide or protein has a huge influence on
its biological activity. To distinguish different peptides and proteins, chemists call the first amino acid the one at the "N terminus" and the last one the one at the $^{4} \mathrm{C}$ terminus." From your drawing in part (b) you should be able to figure out what "N terminus" and "C terminus" mean. How many different peptides can be made from your three different amino acids?

Whereas to draw the reaction between two amino acids and how this would go on to react with another amino acid. This type outside. So an amino acid is just a carbon attached to can. I mean, this carbon is also bound to a carb oxalic acid, so it keeps in with an alcohol, and then the carbon in middle is the alpha carbon. It's bound to, um, Ethel and hydrogen is reacting with the other. Another peptide to these reactions are between the car box of acids and the mean, yeah, the immune association. So it's the same Same peptide are the same amino acids. So the first step is for nitrogen to attack Carbonell carbon converts the key to in an alcohol we're going to get. So I'm just gonna draw what's, um, what's actually going on instead of the rest of the chain. So we have an arc oxide ion and then this part I'm just gonna labels are this is our over here is no h and then we also have the Do you mean just down to this is a janitor. I just I just labeled as our the next step is for the cock sides to regenerate the double bond and expels the hydroxide. And again, they mean has a positive charge because it don't need a pair of electrons that were negative. That's still there to keep it in again and then rest thee. Our group. The next step is for hydroxide. The law spurts that, um, was expelled too. Grab birds on transfer back to nitrogen and you get this So it lost the birds on and then plus water. So this is the diet Pepsi that we've created. So if we react this die peptide with another amino acid, it's the same mechanism. They're just gonna involve the carb oxalic acids and, um, the immuno suggestion. So going from right to left, we have the r bound to key tune and bound to nitrogen, go out to the side, chain the hydrogen, reacting with another peptide or amino acids. So if the car box of acid part of it attached to the alpha carbon as a Bethel hydrogen and then this carbon has the immune or is attached to me page two. But this is really the most important part of it. So it gets the same same mechanism taxing carbon and carbon converts the key to an alcohol, actually. Hold on. And then this is bound to the nutrition attached to Assad chain. The key town. It's positive. Charge regenerates. The Laban expels this key tone here. Yeah, method, do you mean? And the hydrogen. So the last step is for the hydroxide too. Grab Burton from the Imad. Do we get the structure? Two key turns out. So this is the final products.

In this problem, we'll discuss how amino acid monomers and connect using picked by bonds that form poly peptides in this process to amino acids will link together. During this linkage, water will form. So this is compensation reaction as a molecule of water is produced in the process. So this water will allow leaving will allow for the linkage between the two amino acids or compounds that have both a NASA group in an amine group. So this bond is the peptide bond and as you can see and m i group is formed the next we will discuss how this guy peptide can be transformed into a poly peptide through the addition of another amino acid. Okay, so I've copied our die peptide below with the peptide linkage. And with that amino acid, we conform a poly peptide. So against this reaction is going to occur the condensation reaction where we will lose a molecule of water from our compound. And again, this will allow for the peptide shrinkage where we will have an am I'd form and link the compounds together. And with this linkage, we have our poly peptide poly peptide has multiple and my group these poly peptides could form long chains with different kinds of amino acids, and this is how proteins are formed in our bodies.

Okay, so primary structure of protein refers to the sequence of um, you know, I said in the chain along any particular section configuration, maybe helical or Auckland tune or I aged in some are there We like pleated sheets or whatever it is. So this is called the secondary structure. Hopeful Dean's. Okay. And Mhm. Over was she off the protein for the cure instead? Don't mean, Yeah. Bye. Uh huh. The weed? The segment of the protein. Oh, change fool. Took care of those fall back. This is left forward as dollars city structure.

This problem from organic chemistry is based on the formation of die peptide and policy applied molecules where the peptide one formation takes place between the amino acid molecules. Here we are given these two structures of familial sense for which we have to show how these react to form. And, um, I'd linkage and form a dime. Er that is a diet of tight. And also we will answer how this type of tight and go into the reaction with additional, um, universities to former policy. So between these two molecules, one end has and it's too and the other and has the O. H. Part. So these parts will react and they will lose water molecule, thereby resulting into the information of a bond between carbon and nitrogen that is shown here. This new one is formed. This molecule is, uh, dime er, which is a die peptide molecule. Now, since we can see there, this molecule has at one end it has, and it's two groups which will react with C o H group at one and off, another molecule of diabetic tied, and so it forms for Lee peptide


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