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A specialized type of adipose tissue involved in mammalian heatgeneration is called “brown adipose tissue” because it is filledwith sufficient numbers o...

Question

A specialized type of adipose tissue involved in mammalian heatgeneration is called “brown adipose tissue” because it is filledwith sufficient numbers of iron-rich mitochondria to turn thetissue brown. Within these fatty tissues, heat can be generatedwithin the mitochondria – without shivering – by consuming theirlipid stores without generating ATP, as this would inhibit severalpoints of lipid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. This isachieved by these cells producing thermogenin,

A specialized type of adipose tissue involved in mammalian heat generation is called “brown adipose tissue” because it is filled with sufficient numbers of iron-rich mitochondria to turn the tissue brown. Within these fatty tissues, heat can be generated within the mitochondria – without shivering – by consuming their lipid stores without generating ATP, as this would inhibit several points of lipid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. This is achieved by these cells producing thermogenin, a protein which allows protons to freely cross the mitochondrial inner membrane. What best explains how thermogenin contributes to this process? Thermogenin allows the proton motive force to be dissipated without going through F0-F1 ATP synthase, avoiding ATP production. Thermogenin increases the efficiency of acetyl-CoA entering the TCA cycle. Thermogenin promotes fatty acid oxidation to acetyl-CoA. Thermogenin activates kinases in the cell, rapidly consuming cellular ATP stores. Thermogenein promotes the reduction of coenzyme Q to QH2.



Answers

Which organelle in brown adipose tissue gives this tissue its heightened capacity to produce heat? a. mitochondria b. endoplasmic reticulum c. Golgi bodies d. ribosomes

Thank you. Mm. Okay. In these questions, we have three subsections, so starting with section A, if the levels of an uncoupling agent are relatively low, then forced fate and oxygen ratio drops initially. Nevertheless, the cell can overcome this situation by increasing the rate of flow of electrons so it can overcome by increasing the rate of flow of electrons, thereby keeping the ATP production normal. However, at the higher levels of uncoupling agent, the force fate to oxygen ratio becomes relatively low and can approach to zero. Eventually, the cell at this position is unable to maintain normal 80 fee levels moving on to option B. Mm. We have profuse sweating and it increases. The body temperature is caused by ingestion of uncouple us. So this is because it causes a decrease in causes a degrees in four straight to oxygen ratio. The ratio is mainly important in the production of ATP that is considered sufficient in order to maintain normal level of ADP body increases. The rate of oxidation, or fuel increased oxidation rate also enhances the body temperature. Moving on to option C, we have 24 die nitrile final. This is a potential uncoupling agent intake of 24 Die Nitro phenol causes increased activity of respiratory chain with increased oxidation. So increased respiratory respiration with increase in oxidation, additional results of energy light like origin and fat. By increasing the oxidation of these fuels to produce the required amount of 80 p, a person starts to lose weight. However, these drugs, when taken in large quantity for prolonged use, can cause forceful to oxygen ratio to become zero, thereby limiting or completely inhibiting the production. The lack of ATB can be little and late can be led to death.

First, the V max off the enzyme in the absence off inhibitor is calculated as, um why is equal to 0.118 x plus 0.19 three and the max is one upon why intercept. Therefore, V Max is one upon in 0.193 There is a girl to five points, 51.8 and for a minute that the the mix off the enzyme in the absence off the and Zain is 5 51.8. Next the get em off the enzyme in the absence off the inhibitor is wife as they go to 0.118 x plus 0.193 Okay, am is slope upon. Do I intercept? Yes. Slope is 0.118 and intercepted 0.193 That is equal to 0.61 left the game off the end. I'm in a sense off. The inhibitor is sort of 0.61 then. Mm. Be max off the enzyme in presence off inhibitor is why, as they called 0.20 to x plus 0.19 sixth and be next is one upon why intercept? There is a burrito one upon 0.196 51.2 That's the remix off the enzyme in presence off the inhibitory 51.2 and K m in presence off the inhibitor is, uh, slope upon. Why intercept lo 0.202 And why intercepted 0.196 There is 1.3 no second is, um according to the given information information The eyeball by the I brought proof in is involved in inhibition off inhibition off girl Rasta blending synthesis which is catalyzed which is catalyzed Buy it and sign cross prostate er glendon and the peroxide 7 30 days since taste according to the information the type off inhibition the type off inhibition innovation that is exalted that is exerted by day I be ibuprofen on the enzyme Rasta Glendon end up peroxide Sen tears in days or cyclo off rigidness is competitive Come better tive inhibition in Hey bishop in competitive inhibition, The binding off inhibitor at active size site often Zion prevents the binding off substrates on Does the pro duck information by the enzyme is reduced in the presence off inhibitor in the presence off inhibitor? In this type off innovation be mix, say V. Max remains the same and okay, am increases.

Um, we know that pH is negative. Log off H plus so we can calculate the external H plus. That is, um then to the power 7.4. That is four multiplied. Pretend to the par minus set. No. And the internal h plus ISS Which press is then to the power negative 7.7 days to But I pretend to depart minus yet and second since external edge plus of plus upon internal h plus is a girl too, um for multiple pretend to depart minus eight upon to multiplied by 10 to depart minus said his to wish to one. Now we can calculate the free energy inherit inherent in this concentration difference across the membrane it 25 degrees. Therefore there is g is a cool toe. Are they natural? Log off, See two upon. See one There's a girl toe 8.315 multiplied by 2 98 Calvins Okay, heaven to at 25 degrees Celsius are they is 2.4 78 Kill a jewel for more. Therefore, 0.47 multiplied by natural love. Off to there is minus 1.7 Kill a jewel poor my Tartus um, the number of protons in a responding liver, my toe country, and can be calculated as, um volume off my took Andrea. My took Andrea is a cult off. 453 by a cube for by three by 3.14 And our is 0.75 multiplied by 10 to depart, minus three. Mm. Here. So here h plus is two multiplied. We tend to the par minus. Set em in. The number off protons is number off. Throw stones. If it is for bright three. By our cube, there is a girl for by three multiplied by 3.14 multiplied by 0.75 multiplied by 10 to the par minus tree and then Cuba. That is equal to like calculating this. We get, um 21.21 Oh, almost a quarter. 21 protons. Hence the number off protons in a responding when mitochondria eyes 21 indeed. Ah, yes. No. The energy available from the H plus concentration ingredient. Therefore, no. The energy available from the H plus concentration. Grady int 2.3 delta p h r p. It is 2.3 multiplied by 0.3 multiplied by 2. 48 mhm 1.7112 Killer jewels bar far more Eso This energy is not sufficient is not sufficient. Synthesize one more off a d. P the last days the some off energy Do you do Chad separation judge separation and do took concentration. Ingredient gives the daughter energy in the pH ingredient the main factor vector responsible for production off sufficient production off sufficient G P is overall drawings membrane electrical potential.

So the question here, basically, how does non shivering heat production basically occurred? So non shivering reproduction is basically any sort of production that doesn't involve the skeletal muscles. So in this particular case, the answer to this question is going to be Brown had opposed to shoes. This is because I'm brown out of those tissues around fast are basically affected by the sympathetic nervous system in response to a cold stress, which that liberates a lot of. So these type of that's contained large numbers of monarch Andrea and small called lose fat instead of one large backlog. So the answer to this question is going to be C.


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