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Write a short paragraph on aflatoxin poisoning. Name the fungalspecies that causes aflatoxin poisoning (1 mark), name examples ofthe foods it affects (1 mark) and s...

Question

Write a short paragraph on aflatoxin poisoning. Name the fungalspecies that causes aflatoxin poisoning (1 mark), name examples ofthe foods it affects (1 mark) and state the temperature range thatthis fungus will develop and produce toxins (1 mark). Name thetarget organ in the body most affected (1 mark)

Write a short paragraph on aflatoxin poisoning. Name the fungal species that causes aflatoxin poisoning (1 mark), name examples of the foods it affects (1 mark) and state the temperature range that this fungus will develop and produce toxins (1 mark). Name the target organ in the body most affected (1 mark)



Answers

Describe the virulence factors associated with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus.

Hello, everybody. It's Ricky. And today I'm gonna be walking you through Problem number eight from chapter 31 the Campbell Biology textbook. And what this question is asking us to do is to, uh, kind of look at this picture of a wasp. Um, that was the unfortunate victim of pathogenic fungus, and we want to kind of describe kind of what we can infer about the fungus from the picture. All right, so one of the first things that we notice, or that one of the first things that we can infer is that the lost either inhaled or eight fungal spores and that's how it got this fungus in the first place. This fungus is also and absorb tive hetero trough. And we can tell this by the fact that, um the fungus is literally inside of the wasp, competing for the nutrients that the WASP collects for itself. And we also see that the wasps outer layer has been penetrated by the fungal Hi fate and the implications of this are decreased wasp mobility. Um, which increases the risk of predation of the loss, which is bad for the lost but good for the fungus. Because if the If a predator goes near the wasp and inhales any of the spores or eats the lost, it will get infected. So that's probably the mode of of transmission. Yeah. And those air the key takeaways that, um I'd say you should pull from this image of the wasp. I hope my explanation was helpful. And I look forward to seeing you in the next time. All right, Have a good day by

So all organisms need nutrients to be able to function, and some will manufacturer. But some will consume. Animals are those organisms that will consume their foods. There multiple steps to this, uh, ingestion, digestion, absorption and the one that we're going to focus in and is the digestion process. And if you'll notice in each of the different main kinds of Salem types of organisms, the center tube area is the digestive tract, and I wanted to go ahead and show you several different images of different kinds of invertebrates and make it so that you can see their digestive tract. The digestive tract of the elementary canal is where the digestion takes place and is generally the closer into the mouth, which is where for earthworm, which is what this is. A cross section off has in it the um, mouth, of course, where Ebola size a block of food would be taken in with a little bit of water and some enzymes and then go through this process, where with the crop, which is a storage area gizzard, which is a much leathery, much more muscular kind of area. And there's much more of the churning that is involved until we get down into the intestinal in the intestinal tract is her. A lot of that absorption takes place, and this, in fact, is demonstrating a particular diameter of the digestive. Two in specifics. It talks about it being the intestine. So this is the intestinal tract, which is later after the crop in the desert, um, different size of the digestive tract. Or and in some cases we might have what's called a gastro vascular cavity, for example, in comb jellies and other Nigerians. Uh, there's not a tube structure here and in fact, is just only one opening, which is used as a mouth and innate anus. And here is the CN enemy, which is another example of a night area. And this is again where it's just the one simple opening here inside, and there's not another. So it's a, um, opening into a blind cavity or a blind sat called the Castro Vascular cavity. And then it is also the anuses well, so in either of the two where you have that blind cavity and in the flatworm, of course, uh, it's very similar there, say mouth anus that comes out through the pharynx. Oh, that's not the one I wanted to show you. Um, the hydra is one I wanted to show you next, I suppose, because it is also Nigeria as well. Here it is. And that the size of its digestive tract of its gastro vascular cavity is only as large as the pray that it can capture on its tentacles. No, In of itself, this is a small creature. We have to use a dissecting scope or, in some cases, a microscope, depending on what species, in order to even be able to view this particular organism. And so the pray that it captures and uses its tentacle to put into its mouth is much smaller than, um Oh, my gosh, like it would be ridiculous to think that it could capture a mouth or something. So there are limits to its digestive system based on the size of the organism. And, uh, if we go back to the analyst, go back to the earthworm once again. After we talked about comparing the two of having the, um, elementary canal, which is a little bit more complicated, a few more organs that are involved and that you have a mouth and anus at the end of the arthropod of the earth, warm of other kinds of organisms as compared to the gastro vascular cavity. In any case, when the earth warm, for example, is digging through the dirt and it's eating it's food and getting the policy of food. The digestive tract can only be a certain diameter. So the food item must also then be on lee of a certain diameter and, um otherwise it will tear at and stretch the musculature too far, um, and and tear up the muscle and make it where it like pops like a balloon. And as I think about a balloon arthropods or another example where they have a mouth and an anise, here is a female mosquito before she has ingested the blood. Here is a female, uh, mosquito. After ingesting the blood, now notice how much more full that the abdominal area is. This is not in the digestive tract it is actually referred to Is a divert diverticular, Um, and what this day vertical, um, is is a storage area, while if you can see that there's also eggs inside because the egg laying the eggs is such an intense, metabolizing kind of process that they have to have this additional nutrition. But itself is not within the digestive tract per se. The digestive tract is still and then there's The aim is down here is still sort of a separate. This is just one area or section, so the digestive tract is going to be based on the size of the prey and the size of the organism and the food item that the animal is taking in. And so you're very small, like the hydro will have very small prey. The larger arthropod of mosquito will have a little bit larger size prey, so therefore, the size of prey, um, is that the animal can take in is based on what is digestive tract sizes.

Okay, so I'm gonna go over the different Protess brat cause the following diseases. So for toxoplasmosis, the responsible party is Toxoplasma Gandhi. We're gon die might. But you're all these names home for malaria. It's gonna be plasmodium. That is the responsible party. If I can space these out just a little bit better. There we go. The group Downy mildew. Be responsible. Protest is plasma Paara rid of cola or paralytic shellfish poisoning? Um, the responsible party is Oh, vice hysteria. Um, probably did not pronounce that one correctly for amoebic dysentery. Um, it is inte mo va Hiss School Lyrica Policeman ises hoops Released when Isis Um, this one's pretty simple. Keep it similar. Its leash mania for hikers diarrhea, diarrhea. This one is Guardia and test in Alice and for African sleeping sickness. This one is Hano. So Mia Bruce, I brew Brooky. Not really Suri pronounce that one. And lastly, Fritsch August disease It's going to be the same family trip on a so mia cruzi. There you have it. Those were the responsible, um, Protess for the following diseases

So today I'm going to discuss several diseases that are caused by fungi and indifferent. Plan A. The 1st 1 on one discuss is the contra dialled my closest, which usually is an amphibian chi tripped from that disease on crossfire Bead Denver Bad testes, This fungus common if that's hundreds of species of endangered frogs in Australia. So all the letters that I show you a figure describe the symptoms of the disease tell figure shows healthy for off the bottom one shows a disease off effect that frog. So usually the fungus effect the skin off the frog system. Include, uh uh, this color scamp Union Alcide Later on the skin. When the frocks it's out and open, it doesn't protect a sun ra. Hiding the frog appeared to be sluggish and have no after time and in severe cases of the frost body will become rigid. And that's bad lacks a well trained behind it instead of tucking underneath at the Bali as usual. So pretty much the phone guy stuff and I affect the skin of a frog. So the traditional spreading of the disease is usually support of direct contact between the frost and a tap holes. Now, these, uh, disease can also be spread out through exposure to infected water service force when this spores getting to the pond or water, money or the lake and then these force can be transferred to the body off those frogs. Now, the next thing is what we can do to save these rocks. Well, when we visit any frog habitat in the wild Onley in touch those frogs when absolutely necessary So we can have four sports on our hands, which can be transferred to the body of the frocks. So not touching a frog. Now, for, ah, professionals, workers who can save the frost a usually transfer healthy frocks to do these resumes to prevent from those frat frocks. Rough earner exposure off the friend Gus. Now, if any sick father being discovered and they will be treated with, um, in technical re agent and there are also hundreds of people there, monitor and detect found break off these disease efficiently. So then the disease can be caught immediately, and then the action could be taken to prevent it from spreading more widely. Um so the benefit off those what we can, what we can do is to say misspend the and interest frog species, but the nests disease I'm going to discuss is the acute medical, my closest. This is a severe example. My closest inhuman and mostly costs by a species called on rise opas. Now this is not the only species that costume you call my closest. There's a several other similar species, but they all belong to the follow of Zibel. My seat. This, in turn of the disease, depends on where the infection infects infected areas. If it's a rhino cerebral, minced of infection in areas in Sinus, in the brain, then the patient can have official swelling. Paddick bland lesion on a nose fridge now is the exception occurs in the brain. Then the patient can have more severe symptoms. For example, life well, Sergey Seizures and slurs. Fiji speech is infection of prison or lack long we called pulmonary so the patients can have shown expressed just paying Colvin fever. Now, if they disease the person, the skin, then the patient can have blister also on their skin, and in fact, it area made turn black. Well, no good. The transmission of this disease, the mutual, my closest usually acquires when it's forced off the mode are breathing or inhaled, are miss homely those sports and enter bodies through a cut in the skin. But, uh, the disease cannot be transmitted from one person to the other, which is great. The treatment of disease. Well, um, to the holy It and have a little medications such as Advil Tourists and B is administered, administered intravenously for a couple weeks, well for similar cases. Then, when the symptoms are improved, then the doctor may switch to medication to a less aggressive drug clot. Postal Khanna zone and this dress will be taken orally. Loaded benefits is obviously seem less. The next disease that I'm going to discuss is called a Dutch elm disease, which is caused by a speeches by fungus called off feel stoma Only now, which obviously belonged to the filing off Estelle Mice. Focus Those fungi. Infection usually clogs the best coolers tissues, which caused a watered information because the water is transom. Minutes throughout the plants were the best killer system. Now, this symptom on my show, you on the left hand side is what that don't look like when, uh, they are being affected by the defender. So the symptoms, including Gillian and, well team, believes on individual branches. And these legal leaves often turn brown and pearl and the branches died. And victory that leave me drop they affect the trees usually die within a year. The transmission of the disease, uh, usually still a vector and insect on bar veto. The veto can carries force of this disease. And, um, uh, the beetle can carry this force, and then so it can be carried up to the tree as well. So what we can dio treatment must be proactive before the disease is present in the tree. So that means if the tree is infected with the disease already, the treatment can be very ineffective. So the, uh, to prevent it from happening The trouble. Oh, the tree is usually being injected with a common thing beside called proper soul, trying to prevent it from happening. And a lot of time you have to prove. And if it's those, in fact, that branches probably usually bag it and burn it to prevent the force from spreading out the costs of benefit to save the L farm trees and the plus could be huge for a tree Foam Teoh prevent it from happening. Thousands of dollars will be spent. Teoh, inject the funk aside, um, for a year for two and three years. Just a primitive disease for happening. The last disease I wanted to discuss is called a smart A smart is a plane disease mostly caused by Ustedes Lago made this which is a species of a CDO my seat. So it's Presidio. My toast. Sis, This fungus effective bras is and sometimes core maize wheat, uh, and sold. Um so basically a lot of crops are being affected by a smut. I'm so our lives on a show you a picture of infected Coram's to the symptoms pretty much include following a corner. Years produced mushroom like tumors over goes and you can see on the inside They you did grow extent and it black as they feel, was forest. Well, once that happens, they mature. They were grow to about 2 45 inches in diameter and then were released thousands off sports when they ruptured. And these force Jimmy airborne and then interest for to the animal. And then they begin transfer to the other field of those crops, So obviously, the transmission will be sports again. I just mentioned it can be either air poor or it can be transfers through animals on contact the treatment of the smut. First of all, you have to choose the best variety of craft and begin with so they have. You have the truth of best resistant varieties to prevent it for happening. Now, if there's any infectious early size, our spot and you have to remove and dispose the in fact that tissues before the mature to prevent us reading off this force. Eso When you call tomato plant, make sure you reduce infection by avoiding injury of the Rustaq and leaves. And those injured tissues are more susceptible to the fungi infection. So sometimes when there are infections, some filled aside, for example, like from the cone ISO and try to Memphis are commonly use. But there another effective once the plan are infected with a fungus. So again, take preventive up precautions is most important on that is that obviously off the disease is to increase the crop yield


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