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Please note that gronieln Eelur[He moleculartonic gconelr%;In the VSEPR model, the geometryregions defined by the electron pairs the valence shell of an JIOI called...

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Please note that gronieln Eelur [He molecular tonic gconelr%; In the VSEPR model, the geometry regions defined by the electron pairs the valence shell of an JIOI called the electron-pair geometry: The Lewis digenn for NH, The clectron-pair gcometry notm Fa NI Thcre arc unsmted pairts) around Uhe central dtom the pcometry oftnc NI moleccule B. The Lewis diugram for XcOs is; :O: The electron Fpulr geomelry around the Xe alom Xcos Thcre urc unshared pairfs) around tke ccntral atom. Beomeuy of the XeOs molecule is Subntlt Anawer Try Anollter Vorslon Ttom attempts remaining



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For each compound, draw the Lewis structure, determine the geometry using VSEPR theory, determine whether the molecule is polar, identify the hybridization of all interior atoms, and make a sketch of the molecule, according to valence bond theory, showing orbital overlap.
a. COF2 (carbon is the central atom)
b. S2Cl2 (ClSSCl)
c. SF4

Girls we want Thio draw the lewis dot structure, determined the geometry to determine whether or not it's polar. Find the hybridization around each central Adam and then draw the Valence bonds structure with overlapping orbital's. And so, for I have five, we'll start with the lewis dot structure. So we have I with its five EFS and then I will have a lone pair and then each of these chefs will have three lone pairs. And so our DJ this is going to be square pyramidal. Ah, this is going to be polar due to the lone pairs on I. Ah, the hybridization is going to be SP three d too, because it has, ah, six total electron groups and, ah, we'll draw the Valance bombs structure. And so we have all of the P orbital's on f and then the SP three d to Orbital's on I. So now let her be. We have ch two ch ch three, and so we'll start with the lewis dot structure. And so this is gonna have ah, two different geometries because we have three central Adams. So it will be triggered all plainer around these to seize that have that double bond and then Tetra hydro around this last see? And so Ah, this will be a non polar molecule because it has no lone pairs to cause polarity. And ah, the hybridization will be sp two around these two tribunal plainer carbons and then sp three around the Tetra Hydro carbon. And so now, to draw this Ah, with Valence bonds. So we have the s Orbital's of the Ages with the hybridized orbital's of the carbons thes to SP two carbons have their three orbits from the, um hybridization and the SP three has its four. And then because these two carbons air double bonded, we will have this pi bond here. So now moving into letter C, we have ch three s h. And so the lewis dot structure will look like this. And so this is going to be bent around the S and Tetra hydro around the carbon both the carbon and the sulphur, R S p three hybridized and this is a polar molecule because of the lone pairs on sulfur. What? So now to draw the Valance bond structure with overlapping orbital's, and so we'll have the two lone pairs on s and then ther e all of the ages with their s or bills

Okay, So in this problem, we will draw the Louis structure for three molecular formulas and use that blue structure to determine the geometry, the polarity and the hybridization of the central Adam. So we start off with CEO F two. So we're given that the central Adam is carbon. So we want automatically put all the other three structures for the three atoms around that problem now to determine how many electrons we're gonna use in each little structure. Well, you we can't surveillance electrons in each. Adam. That's because of a landslide. Drums were the ones being used to form these pipe visa. These bonds between a molecule and are essentially the lone pairs that you see in the little structures. So, Cartman an easy way to determine the basements. Electrons are by seeing what group number and the purity table each autumn is so carbon is grouping before, and it has four elections in its statements. Cloud carbon oxygen is from number six and Florida's group number seven. But we have to will you two times seven. So that equals 24 life terms. So our Lewis structure needs to have 24 electrons in total now we simply bond these molecules to carbon. We have used up six electrons, so we still have 18 to distribute, and we have three surrounding molecules. So first we can start off by giving the electrons to hell. Idiots. Just because college is usually have a lot of electrons and when we do the formal charge, pelicans are most stable, our neutral when they have one bond and three lone pairs of electrons. So when we do the formal charge, remember, home row charge is the number. Ah, valence electrons. So the group number minus the lone pairs minus the months. So Floyd is group number seven seven minus six. Elect Trump's is one minus 11 and zero. So this way, the too floor in their new drugs. And they are they're not charges zero. So essentially what? We want to make the most stable Lewis structure. So now we have used up 12 more like drunks out of the 18 so we still have to distribute six electrons. Now, if you remember, Carmen is most stable with four months. I know it has three, and we no longer want to mess with the Florence because the florins already have. They're not charged zero, but we cannot. One more bond. So oxygen, oxygen, as you may know as well, is most stable with two bonds and two lone pairs. So we have already used up another pair of electrons. We have used to have six. We have for now, but we give those off to oxygen. We can give them to carbon because then we would be breaking doctoral. Mean that the carbon would have more than eight electrons in its failings show. So this way oxygen, which is good. Number six, we do the formal charge for that six minus for my John sets. Tu minus two Bond said. It's here. So now all the molecules are neutral, while Adam's or neutral in this overall charge of the loose structure is your Oh, so this is the most stable Lewis structure that we conform. Now we can determine the hybridization of the central atom. So a trick that you can use is counting the group the number of groups around the central autumn. So we have three. We have one to day Sorry, foreign. You have oxygen for so 123 That's one Countess Yes, two counts of S P one three years sp two The hybridization of this central atom use s p two and that's because each group is gonna be occupying on SP hybridized orbital. Let's be to hybridize orbital in this case and an SP to Adam has three SP to hybridized or bills and each signal one is an occupy these SP to hybridize Oracle's so the same one bonds being the single months. So there's two electrons in each bond. So the bond that's being form to the quite the flooring on the left is occupying one sp two hybridized orbit. Um, the other florin is also occupying that bond is also occupying an SP Torbit. Um, the double bond consists of a single bond in a pi bon that's connected to the oxygen. The seem a bond. It's gonna be occupying NSB tour bottom in the pie. Mont is going to be occupying a P orbital up here. Okay, so that's an easy way to determine it. But this is what it really looks like when the orbital's are actually being off. So that's a harmonisation of a sunshade. Now, to determine the geometry, we're going to use this notation A is a central Adam being carbon X is a number of groups around her, the number of months which is straight. So this gives us the geometry of tribunal plainer. Now I dealing attritional plainer molecule. We would like that the structures for the three buns to be 100 and 20 degrees away from each other that Issa's far away from each other as they can be to avoid strike interactions. And they also the reason why they push each other away make the bonds is because bonds consist of electrons and electrons. For probably, however, because we formed this pie one between carbon and oxygen, not gave that area or that bonding. Ah, lot more electron density. And that electron density pushes down on the neighboring Florence further down the 120 degrees away from each other. So the oxygen and the flooring will actually be more than 120 degrees away from each other, and the florins air pushed closer together. So when we draw this doctor and flooring or 121.9 degrees away from each other, and these two fines are 100 and 16.2 degrees away from each other. And with these angles, the Net disciple, it's not end up cancelling out. So then you would have a polar molecule. Okay, now we move on to the next one. We're getting us to seal too. Now we're giving the notation that the connectivity of this is chlorine bonnets of sulfur monitor. So for bonded to chlorine. And when we determine the number of a list electrons that need to be in our loose structure, we have to Seoul Furs Soul first group number six that has six electrons in its basins club plus two coins. Chlorine is your number seven toe stop. This 14 is 26. Now we have already used up six electrons. When we formed these bots, we need to distribute 20 more again. I like to start off with the Koreans. So in the previous example, we saw that the formal charge of ah halogen would be zero if the halogen has one bond in six electrons or three lone pairs. So we did it again so that chlorine again has a formal charge of syrup. We have gotten rid off 12 more electrons, 20 minus. Well, we need eight more to distribute and we have to solve for us so we could distribute them evenly. Give each sulfur two lone pairs when we have used up the 26 or friends. Now, in this case, we have to some tribes and their hybridization. Does that speak to you again? And we used that trick that I showed you earlier. You count the number of lone pairs or bonds, so in total, the number of groups around the central In this case, we have four because we have two months and we have tool in pairs. So we do as p one p two Pete Dream SPT we hybridize orbital. So that's the trick. But what I would do it until you look like is we would have four sp three hybridize orbital's. And we're gonna focus on this sofa right here. So this sulfur has two lone pairs, so there's one month there. There's another lone pair, each occupying an SP three orbital, and then it has a Bonta quarry. A bomb has two electrons. That's also if you find an SP through orbital in the bonds of sulfur, it's another pair of war. France. So that's what the hybridization would look like not to determine the geometry of this. We use again. The notation a user central himself for X is the number of groups mean to, and he is the number of lone pairs also to so this young she would be bet, and what that means is that only draw this. The sulfur has empty orbital's not empty MSAR have SP three orbital's that are being occupied by lone pairs. Those lone pairs will repel the other two groups of the two buns. We pushed them away in a downward way. That's within the geometry school bent because essentially bends those other two bombs like this. No, no one said we have a client on the other. We have self, and that other sulphur is also a central data. It has exact scene shake. Okay, In this case, the corns are in the transposition. There is far away from each other. It's possible to avoid serik interactions, and the bending between the two bonds and each central atom are created by the lone pairs. So because of these angles, you know the two Adams, where the two groups bonded to the central atom are 104 degrees, 104.5 degrees away from each other. And this would make the structure Poehler's well, because then that disciples were not cancer will not cancel out. Okay, so we're gonna move on to the next one. The last one, which is us, Uh, for Okay, So we're given that the central item is flooring. I'm sorry. It's sulfur. So we can just right off the bat, touch all of the coins to that silver and make it the central now to counsel to count our Baylin select trance that are gonna be contributory Lewis structure? Yeah, sulfur group number six. Plus, we have four florins, and that's group number seven. So four times seven is 28. Six was 34. So we have already used up eight electrons by bonding the foreign to the silver. There was, like, a single bond so that 34 electrons minus eight it's 26 now. Then, if we distribute enough electron, see each wine so that its formal charges zero So we need to give it 31 pierce each one. So that again the former charge will be seven. It's group number, minus one want minus six elections that equals here. So we have gone right of six times Four. That's 24 electrons 26 minus 24. We have two electrons left. No, we can't give them Tony to the floor in 10 years Defines because then we would be breaking an architectural, meaning that these Florence would have more than eight electrons in its feelings cloud. And that cannot happen. However, soul for is one of those atoms that can take up more than eight electrons in its valence show. So we give those compares to sulfur and that gives this sulfur Ah, hybridization of sp three d. So again, if you use that trick, this is S P. Why, I'm sorry. S p one p two p three d is that lone pair So that loan paralyzing a D or bill? So what that looks like again is we have four sp three or middles and one day orbital, one of the bonds to flooring is occupying 11 SPT Orbital's the second flooring a second SP three orbital, third and fourth. So all the stuff of bonds better from a foreign to us over are occupied and SP three orbital's and the low perroncel for his occupying that DRB. Now, to determine the geometry of this, can we use the same rotation? Either Central Atom X is a number of groups around that central idea being for and we have one lone pair. So this gives us a geometry of a seesaw. And to make the most stable shame, we have to put that lone pair. So here's orbital that that long socks point in equatorial position. This is so that it is as far away as it can possibly be from its neighboring in Florence. So here we have two florins on the plane. We have one Florida coming out of the plane. Come on, flooring going into the plane. And when we do this, this flooring is 90 degrees away from that lone pair and the flooring that are coming in and out of the plane or 100 and 20 degrees away from that lone pair. And with this shape and these angles again, the diapers don't cancel out. So then the structure would be pulling, and that isn't. Thank you so much

Right. So for I f five, we have an idea with five four rings around it, okay, Before rings are all gonna have their pet completely filled. And this idea has seven valence electrons. It's used five ton to form a bond, so that means I have two left over. They're going to exist US alone pair. So we need to use Vester theory to the term of the geometry. It has six total things around it, which would be after he'd roll. Except it's missing one of them. So when you're missing one, it becomes a square pyramid. And to know if it's polar, this is indeed going to be polar if I kind of draw the square pyramid and might be a little bit more obvious. So here is our square pyramid. So everything with her Adam in the center, there s o. Everything on the equator here in this square is going to cancel each other out. But then we have one for in here, causing a bond upwards. And if this wasn't a one electron pair feels sixth flooring that it wouldn't be puller. But there's nothing down here. Can't counter it. So this is going to be a poor molecule. Um, the hybridization of this I don here is going to be as if p three d to give that because it has six things around. It's got five bonds and got one going on Trump here. So I need to put that into six Hybrid orbital's ain't one for S three from P. That leaves me with two more than I need in the Dior. Bills are next to lowest. So this next molecule we have C age, too. Then C h and then see age three. We need to be careful here because we're not completely done yet. We've drawn all the almonds in the correct position, but two of these carbons only have three bonds, which means they both need a second bond three to draw one in between that. So this carbon without the second bond is going to be our kind of traditional F P three carbon got four things around it, but these two carbons both have a double bond. They r s two, and we don't really consider this. Polar carbon and hydrogen are close enough to each other that there's not really a significant, but your negativity difference. So we don't consider We consider this non polar. So finally, with that CH three s each little greatness So carbon with three hydrogen sze and then connected to a silver as Clinton toe hydrogen and the sulphur has six them until a trance We need to draw on its two lone parents. It's essentially just like oxygen. In this case, um, this molecule will be poorer. It's because these air both polar bonds here And because this sulfur is S p three, it's Tetra he'd roll, which means this bond angle isn't one hundred eighty degrees. It's actually one hundred nine. So these two arrows cant cancel each other out. There's going to be some net poll of electrons talk towards this sulser thiss carbon. Here's also a p three

Hi, everybody. So, in this question, yes, that is used the VSC peer model to predict the bonding and geometry about each highlighted later. Remember to take into account the presence of an shirt. Pair of electrons. Now enough. Foster needs ethanol now, you know, bonding around this carbon into carbon. There are four single bonds. These poor single body forms provision of electron density and therefore predicted born angle is 109 degree, five minutes. So 109 degree, five minutes around carbon and therefore geometry expected to be taped ahead. Yeah, Then around oxygen. You know, there are two single bombs and too long payers. Therefore one second, there are four regions of electron density around this option atom and the bonding will predicted to be 109 degree. So 109 degree, five minutes around oxygen. Therefore, one second it is expected to be the federal might actually obtaining. We started a title because of presidents of Poland. Then next one is, you know, predicted bonding around this carbon is 1 20 degree. Since there are three different regions of electron density due to one double one and two single bombs. So 1 20 degrees around carbon, carbon and expected Giamatti's tribunal planer Lana everybody than next one is carbon. The expected born angle is here. You can say, uh, you know, there are two regions of electron density that is to single, born and one triple born. Uh, around this carbon is one single one and one trip and one. And that's why to regions of electron density and therefore expected warning. And it's 1 80 degree, according to BS. If here so relate 1 80 degree around carbon. I am expected. Kilometer is linear. Yeah, thanks a lot.


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