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Dlyer Eet 'thc bends' If they come ArtpCCueedircolveu Anauuken ther LiIn blood e and bodv tssues expands, lormlng bubbles. Ayer Ias (uuz uln In thelr blo...

Question

Dlyer Eet 'thc bends' If they come ArtpCCueedircolveu Anauuken ther LiIn blood e and bodv tssues expands, lormlng bubbles. Ayer Ias (uuz uln In thelr blood and dives depth o0 @eeliherthenntzsurl tatm Fl tme; the diver qulckly rises te urfac whcrethc [email protected] Lam Canant Ityolumi ufthe Lelrbloodbc? Qo vouthinktniswil harn Uiy diveryAn aerosol spray can with a volumc of 250.mL_ Cmhaams 2.30 B of propane RAs (CsHo) as # propellant Ifthean Isat 23*C,what Is the pressure tnc cnt 3H8= JsO m

Dlyer Eet 'thc bends' If they come ArtpCCueedircolveu Anauuken ther LiIn blood e and bodv tssues expands, lormlng bubbles. Ayer Ias (uuz uln In thelr blood and dives depth o0 @eeliherthenntzsurl tatm Fl tme; the diver qulckly rises te urfac whcrethc [email protected] Lam Canant Ityolumi ufthe Lelrbloodbc? Qo vouthinktniswil harn Uiy divery An aerosol spray can with a volumc of 250.mL_ Cmhaams 2.30 B of propane RAs (CsHo) as # propellant Ifthean Isat 23*C,what Is the pressure tnc cnt 3H8= JsO m| J. 230L P-2.382 (0.082-1)( Ik mas C43 - 280 9 94.05 (6 2sc ) 3(12.0198 {1.0074) - 44.04 P-5.07 &4m What Is the molar mass ofa 792 mg sample ofa gas with volumeofo2951 9 tempcrature of 85*C,and prersure0f78? mmHg? The metabollc oxidation of glucose, CcHizOo. in our bodies produces COz which expelled from our lungs = Pub: CsHizOs() 6020) 6C020) 6 HzOq} Calculate the volume in of COz at body temperature of 37*C and 0.970 atm when 24.5 g ofglucose is consumed in thls reaction: b: Calculate the volume of 0z in needed at 1.0 atm and 298K t0 completely react 50.0g of glucose;



Answers

The "bends" is a medical emergency caused by the formation of tiny bubbles in the blood vessels of divers who rise too quickly to the surface from a deep dive. At $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ (normal body temperature), the solubility of $\mathrm{N}_{2}$ in water is $0.015 \mathrm{~g} \mathrm{~L}^{-1}$ when its pressure over the solution is 1 atm. Air is approximately $78 \mathrm{~mol} \% \mathrm{~N}_{2}$. How many moles of $\mathrm{N}_{2}$ are dissolved per liter of blood (essentially an aqueous solution) when a diver inhales air at a pressure of 1 atm? How many moles of $\mathrm{N}_{2}$ dissolve per liter of blood when the diver is submerged to a depth of approximately $100 \mathrm{ft}$, where the total pressure of the air being breathed is 4 atm? If the diver suddenly surfaces, how many milliliters of $\mathrm{N}_{2}$ gas, in the form of tiny bubbles, are released into the bloodstream from each liter of blood (at $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and $\left.1 \mathrm{~atm}\right)$ ?

Fingers lips to Problem 36. The first question is canceling the masses off oxygen, carbon dioxide and water transfer from the pulmonary cases to the blunt or vice versa per minute. So we need to calculate the mass is when we need What is the mass per minute? Now it is given that the number of trains number of grace is 12 Redd's per minute in the volume off Inhale and the Volume two in him eighties. The volume that is in healthy is 500 Milly later there from the total volume. Therefore, the total volume flow rate we use is akin to the number of reds multiplied by the volunteer health, which is twin bread, are minute multiplied by 500 million leader for breath. Therefore, the volume thread here is 6000 mL per minute or we can say six liter per minute. That is the volume florid between him. Now the monarch flurry did the in ladies no more than Flory and in that it is in is the culture PV by rt. It is given that pressure is one atmospheric pressure temperature is 24 TV sections and the volume we just translated six liter per minute. Therefore, you can cancel it and is going to one. HTM Want ified by six leader for a minute. Divided with the gas constant 0.8 to 1. Legion a T M Morning, Burson Calvin Anderson and the temperature. Let's converted to them. Kelvin is skill. 24 hours to 73. Kelvin, which gives us 2 97 Kelvin and the monarch florid and the in the days. 0.246 small five minutes. This is the one of Florida that's the inland. Next we need you can keep the Mueller Florida at the outfit. Now the Mueller, Florida at the outlet. Let's calculate it is given that the percentage of nitrogen inspired against the percentages 0.774 and the percentage off nitrogen expired against it is 0.75 Therefore, the nitrogen balance the nitrogen balance sees 0.774 number of months in is the relative 0.75 numbers off malls out. Therefore, number off most out for nitrogen is 3.774 multiplied way in in divided by 0.75 Next since are the value, which is 0.246 malls for minute. We just calculated. And is there a 0.7 point? Therefore, the Muller Florida Town ladies 01254 Small far minute the moon. Our flow rate and out ladies there went to 54 moral per minute. Now the percentage of oxygen percentage of oxygen inspired begins. Is there a point to 06 and the percentage of oxygen expired. Gas is 0.151 Therefore, the mass of oxygen transport with the blood. It is this apparent true, 0.206 And in my name is 0.151 and out wanted night by the molar mass off oxygen. Then each letter substitute all the values. The end in is 0.246 more per minute. And in our bodies, 01254 We need the molar mass off. Excuse me on a mass of oxygen is 100 too, Grandpa. Mom! And when we do this calculation, we will get the mass of oxygen transfer toe the bloody So your 0.394 then for a minute, Minutes of oxygen transfer to glad my stop oxygen trust was glad it bloody 0.394 grand per month. We need to do the same for carbon dioxide and water. Let's do that now. The percentage of carbon dioxide in Spy and these this living is 0.0 and expired is 0.37 Therefore, the mass of carbon dioxide transferred to the bloodies 0.37 and out minus 00 Multiple way in in multiplied by molar mass of carbon dioxide, which is 254 more per minute. My name is zero. Want to play by? There's 1246 more per minute. I want to clarify mass of carbon dioxide, which is 44 grand formal. Therefore, the mass of apartment offset transfer to the bloodies 0.414 Grandpa, Mom and same for wanting. The percentage off water inspired against is 0.2 and the percentage of water experience gasses 0062 Therefore, the mass off water there for them as off water transfer to the bloodies 0.62 multiplied by and now minus zero considered true and in multiplied by modernists off water mixed in Santa values when I missed off water is 18 grand. Permal. When we do the calculation, we will get the mass of water transfer to the bloody 0.195 grand family. And now the next question is calculate the volume off air exhaled, formal religion in hand. What is the volume off in excel, Carmen? Religion in hand. And in this case, we need to consider in the ideal gas behavior when be be out by be reading Is this country in out are tee out? Is it going to end in r D in Or we can write being by v out is it can do in in de en divided by now d o And here we is that in hand volume and weigh in is the inhaled volume and we out is the exhaled volume and on the values Given the number of moles, the temperature these air given Therefore we can calculate the ratio we in divided by we out is gonna do and in is the in health is their 0.254 more per minute. The temperature given here is 310 Kelvin, divided by their 1246 small per minute multiplied by 2 97 Kelvin and they re share we get is 1.78 Therefore mhm At which rate we're losing the weight now. Is that a no? It is not the rate it is. The volume off air excelled power Millimeter in hand is 1.78 No problem CS At which rate in this individual losing weight by merely breathing, at which rate they're losing weight now the percentage of carbon dioxide Now, in this case, the rate in which the individuals are losing weight ease. Aim is a cult. A massive carbon dioxide plans mass off water minus myself Oxygen. They are exhaling carbon dioxide and inhaling water here and Thomas off carbon dioxide. We calculated 0.414 Grandfather Mini. Yeah, For water it is. They want 195 gram per minute. And for water, it is 0.394 g per minute. Therefore, the mass for it in this individual is 0.215 grand per minute. And at this rate they are losing the weight. Therefore, at every minute they're losing 0.215 Graham merely by breathing. And the last question is way. Need to calculate that. How does the body how does the body had just addressed this condition and the conditions and preconditions are given. Okay, what do you think does that most Merrick pressure in Denver, which is approximately 12.1. Have one have on the transport rate and breathing. Read. What is the effect of Denver? Okay, we know that question of guest is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas, and it is directly proportional to the number of moves in the guest. Therefore, at high altitude environment where the pressure is low at high multitude environment, printer pressure is low, okay, and less oxygen point volume off is in health care, less oxygen car volume and is in hand because the pressure is low. Therefore, less oxygen volume affair isn't healthy there, So the rate of transport will be loan and the rate of everything will increase. To compensate that and even the transfer rate of oxygen increase the concentration of blood oxygen. Dick, please. Yeah. Therefore, the stream of blunt carries oxygen at high rate through the body. And in this condition, the body has just through instant into long term acclimatization

Here is an example of a carnot heat engine cycle using an ideal gas. So a reminder that a carnot engine has to ice A thermal processes. One an expansion want a contraction during the expansion at high temperature heat is absorbed during the contraction heat is expelled to the cold reservoir at low temperature. Then there are two idiomatic processes where heat does not have a chance to exchange with the environment. One is again a contraction one. Again, it's an expansion. Usually when analyzing these cycles, a couple of tools are helpful. One is the ideal gas law provided an ideal gas is used. So I usually like to write that down and then find the pressure and volume and temperature At each of the four vortices shown in the cycle. Mm. Uh The other tool that often is useful is the first law of thermodynamics dealt to you is equal to Q. Heat minus work done by the engine. That could be helpful for processes or cycles that involve a idiomatic processes. It is also good to realize that pressure times volume raised to the idiomatic exponent is equal to a constant. It reminder that the automatic exponent is a ratio of cp two C. B. And depends on the nature of the gas. Here we are, given that this constant is 1.3. So this is usually how I like to start. I usually like to start with a table and fill out the three state variables pressure volume and temperature for each of the vertex is in the cycle Here. There are four that are labeled in the diagram for us. Now this problem is challenging because they don't give us outright numbers but they provide clues as to what's going on with this particular sample to put it mildly. Um And so the first thing they tell us is that there's the ambient Environment that the particle is interacting with at the .4. And they give us the ambient temperature as 123 Calvin. Uh now that's good because we now know the temperature at .1 because of the ice a thermal process. They also tell us that we are at one atmosphere at that point but they don't tell us what one atmosphere is other than yeah, it's ambient there. Mhm. Some other clues at .1 we are told there is something called the trigger volume and that's going to become important Because at .2 we get squeezed to half the trigger volume with the radius given As .08cm cubes. That's kind of no not cubed. Sorry. Yeah, that's kind of a weird way to give a clue. But at .2 they also give us the pressure. Yeah, As 20.3 kilo pascal's. So that's an outright calibrated measurement kilo pascal's at 0.3. They give us the clue that No, it's actually a .4. They give us the clue that the final radius expands from the trigger radius by three And since volume is R. Cubed, that tells us that we have 27 times the trigger volume. So we have some clues and I think these are the the most obvious clues. The rest. We're going to have to use some steps with the gas law and the idiomatic exponent to figure out. So looking at the table, the most information appears to be given. Well we'll start with two because there's a nice calibrated point right there. And so at point to what we know is the volume Is 4/3 pi r cubed. And that's going to unravel a lot. So we have 2.14 Times 10 to the -3 m3 figuring that out. I won't show all the math there and then what happens is we can now find the trigger volume By just multiplying it by two and that will give us the Entry for the volume at .1 and it will also give us then The volume at .4 Which is 27 times that. Yeah, 0.116 m3. Yeah. Yes. And we can fill in that entry into the table. Okay, so now we've got to do a little bit more work. Um we see that there's quite a bit of information given in steps one and 2 and they are connected through an idiomatic process. So what we can do between one and 2 because it is idiomatic, We can set the pressure one Times The Volume one raised to 1.3 is equal to the pressure 0.2 times the volume, it too Raised to the 1.3. And let's see that is going to give us of the unknowns. It will give us the pressure at 0.1. So we can solve for that. And we get uh huh 8.24 Killer Pascal's and bingo. Now we've got everything inside appoint one. Uh, we've got, yeah, definitely a bingo type situation. Everything is filled in so we can now use one that everything at that point to solve for the number of moles are, is just the gas constant 8.31 jules per bowl kelvin. And we could solve for that high temperature, which is a very important quantity. Um, once we find the number of moles. Okay, but actually we're using that point to saw for the number of moles. So let me be clear about that. Oh, okay. So we can solve for the number of moles And that's definitely important quantity 3.45 Times 10 to the -2 moles, which I'll just write off to the side because that is an important clue that we can then use in 0.2 to find the high temperature. It's like a mystery that unravels and doing that again, I won't show all the plugging and chugging, But we get a temperature of 151 0.5 kelvin. And that's nice because we now know both the low temperature and the high temperature and that is definitely important things for the operation of a carnot cycle. But while we're at it we have a few more things to fill out so we might as well go ahead and fill those out. There's a lot of information missing at .3. Um and as well as point for But what we see is .3 is connected 2.4 through a uh a dramatic so let's stop with one more step. What about .3? It's connected to four through idiomatic and it's connected to through ice a thermal. So what we can say is the following two relationships the unknown pressure at three Times the unknown volume at three raised to 1.3. That idiomatic exponent is equal to pressure it for volume it for Raised to the 1.3. Okay. Um well we don't know pressure it for, do we? But we can use the fact that four is connected to one through an ice a therm. And so we can say that pressure for volume for is equal to pressure one volume one. And we definitely know both of those at a .1 and we also know the volume at point for so we can solve for pressure for and again, I'll spare the details but we basically get mhm 301 pascal's Okay. Now what do we know? We don't know either pressure three or volume three. So we have to connect it to point to through the ISIS are okay. So we know both Pressure volume at .4. Same with two. We have two equations into unknowns and we can definitely then solve For both pressure three and volume three. And what are the steps to that? Well, I would probably take the bottom relationship And solve it for pressure three and put that back into the top equation. Yeah, 1.3 is the exponent And solving that we get volume three is equal to Okay. Uh huh. Uh huh. 5.84 Times 10 to the -2 cubic meters. And then we can solve for pressure three. Okay. So yeah, we've got the table full at this point. Yeah. So I'll put a little faced by that to show that that one is the most challenging and it's probably the least interesting too on top of it. So at this point, we have all the information about this cycle um we can do some other things with the cycle, basically knowing what the carnot efficiency is. I will use the expression without the percentage because certainly getting the fraction is good enough. But that efficiency is basically the difference between the high and the low temperature divided by the high temperature. So we know both of these temperatures and we can figure out that efficiency, It's about 18.8%. But .188 in terms of a fraction and a reminder that any engine has another definition of efficiency is the work that you get out divided by the heat absorbed at high temperature during the high temperature is a thermal expansion. Yeah. So yes, while the gas is hitting up, it is expanding and pushing against something um whether it's the wheels, the shaft of your car with a piston that's pushing or whether it's this little particle um doing something expanding. Anyway, what we're told is that the work out is 60 killer jewels per hour and that's really a rate at which work is being done, 60 killer jewels per hour Is the same as one killer jewel per minute. Just thinking about How hours translate two minutes. Um and then we can figure out the heat that is absorbed at least the rate. Just turning those into rates does not change the fraction there. And so qh dot the rate at which he dis absorbed is simply uh yeah 5.32 killer jewels per minute. And then we want to use the first law to figure out the difference between um the heat absorbed minus the heat expelled exhaust heat is equal to the output work. And really what you're doing with that is using the first law With Delta U. equals to zero. And solving for qc dot it's the heat absorbed minus the output work, energy must be conserved. And so this is four 32, kill the jewels permit it

Yeah. This problem capacity concept of the hydrostatic pressure And we are going to use the situation to calculate the pressure that trance between the .2 and point so from the situation, The pressure at .2 P equals the pressure at .1 plus the density of seawater in two G. Into The death of the .1 from the same. But the surface That is -20 m plus the density of air into the gravitational acceleration. And to the altitude 7.6 km -7.6. Hello meat. Okay, 0 -7.6 km. Are we can write their pressure difference. It is the 1 -42 equals G times the density of seawater into 20 m. Yes, The density of air into 7.6 km. Now substitute the value. So the pressure to transport with the two party was 9.8 meters four second square into the density of seawater that is 10-4 telegram for meat of you into 20 m plastic density of Here, That is 0.87 kilogram or me talking Into the height that is 7.6 into. And there's three m or the change in pressure between the two points are 2.7 and two. And this fight baskets

So to find the pressure at the brain of the pilot, we're going to note that the inward acceleration can be treated from the pilots reference frame as though it is an outward gravitational acceleration against which the heart must push the blood so essentially they hurt must work a little bit harder. So we know that the the acceleration here would be equal to four times the acceleration due to gravity. So the pressure at the brain of the pilot would be equal to the pressure at the heart and this would be minus the density of blood Times Eight times are and so this would be equal to 120 tour minus. And then it's get a new line 10 60 kilograms per cubic meter, multiplied by the acceleration of four times 9.8 meters per second squared and then multiplied by point 30 meters. And then we're going to multiply this by conversion of one tour for every 133 Pascal's and so the pressure at the brain ah would be equal to 120 tour minus 94 tour and the pressure at the brain would be equal to 26 tour. So this is why, ah, he may pass out because if the pressure isn't close to a certain value and it's if it's if it's more than it's, you might pass out, too. But if it's less, um, you're not, you might not be getting enough oxygen, uh, or no blood to your brain. And therefore you might black out. In a sense, however, uh, here the again the final answer. The pressure of the brain here would be the pressure of the brain of the pilot would be 26 tour. That is the end of the solution. Thank you for what?


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