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Hello, below is a chemistry assignment. Instead of givingyou my data, then you in turn show me the equation and compute thesolutions. I would like if you would ins...

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Hello, below is a chemistry assignment. Instead of givingyou my data, then you in turn show me the equation and compute thesolutions. I would like if you would instead show me the equationsneeded to perform calculations and the thought process forquestions. I will input my own data into provided equations. Ithink, that maybe, by me inputting the data thatthis will be a better study approach for myself.As always, thanks for the helpAnalysis of Bleach, Sodium Hypochlorite Commercial bleaches are

Hello, below is a chemistry assignment. Instead of giving you my data, then you in turn show me the equation and compute the solutions. I would like if you would instead show me the equations needed to perform calculations and the thought process for questions. I will input my own data into provided equations. I think, that maybe, by me inputting the data that this will be a better study approach for myself. As always, thanks for the help Analysis of Bleach, Sodium Hypochlorite Commercial bleaches are made by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. In the process sodium hydroxide, dichlorine gas, and dihydrogen gas are formed. If the sodium hydroxide and the dichlorine are allowed to mix, sodium hypochlorite is generated. Some of the dichlorine is oxidized to the hypochlorite ion present in the solution, while some is reduced to the chloride ion in a reaction called a disproportionation reaction. Liquid household bleaches usually contain approximately 3-8% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) by mass; it is the oxidizing power of the hypochlorite ion that is responsible for the beneficial action of bleach. Hypochlorite performs its bleaching function by oxidizing stains (or dyes) to produce colorless, soluble, or gaseous species. As mentioned, liquid laundry bleach is prepared commercially by electrolysis of a cold, stirred solution of sodium chloride. Dichlorine gas is produced at the anode: 2Cl-(aq) à Cl2(g) + 2e– (Oxidation)(1) and hydroxide ion is formed at the cathode: 2 H2O(l) + 2e– à 2 OH–(aq) + H2(g) (Reduction)(2) The overall process is: Cl2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) à NaOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)(3) The amount of hypochlorite ion present in a solution of bleach is determined by a redox titration. In this experiment, the titration involves iodide and thiosulfate ions. Iodide ion, I-, can be oxidized by almost any oxidizing agent. The three reactions in the analysis are: NaOCl(aq) + 2KI(aq) + 2HCl(aq) à I2(aq) + NaCl(aq) + 2KCl(aq) + H2O(l)(4) I2(aq) + KI(aq) ß à KI3 (aq) (5) 2Na2S2O3(aq) + I2(aq) à Na2S4O6(aq) + 2NaI(aq)(6) The bleach is a good oxidizing agent and will oxidize iodide ion in an acidic solution as shown in Equation 4. The resulting diiodine can be titrated with thiosulfate. An excess of KI is added to the titration mixture for several reasons. First, the actual amount of hypochlorite in solution is unknown so enough KI must be added to react with all the bleach, which is being analyzed. Second, since diiodine is somewhat volatile, it will be stabilized by the presence of excess iodide due to the formation of the triiodide ion (I3-). The presence of the triiodide ion gives a dark orange to reddish brown color to the solution. This is shown in Equation 5. Once the bleach has been converted to the triiodide, the free diiodine in solution from Equation 5 can be titrated with standardized thiosulfate according to Equation 6. As the diiodine is consumed, the equilibrium in Equation 5 shifts to produce more I2 until all of the diiodine is used. The reaction that occurs during the titration is given by Equation 6. The titration of highly acidic solutions of diiodine with thiosulfate yields quantitative results provided air oxidation of iodide is minimized and the thiosulfate is added slowly to prevent its decomposition. Once the iodide is oxidized to diiodine, it must be titrated immediately with the thiosulfate as I2 is volatile. The end point in the titration is readily determined by means of a starch solution. Starch is used as an indicator because it reacts with I2 to form a dark color. The dark color will fade during the titration as I2 is consumed. The end point occurs when one drop of the Na2S2O3 solution causes the disappearance of the last trace of I2 and the solution changes from dark to colorless. Since starch is partially decomposed in the presence of a large excess of diiodine, the indicator is never added to a diiodine solution until the bulk of that substance has been reduced. The change in color of the diiodine solution from red to a faint yellow signals the proper time for the addition of the starch indicator. In order to determine the bleach concentration, the concentration of the thiosulfate must be known and unfortunately, it is not a good primary standard for accurate work because the solid cannot be dried without decomposing it. Therefore, the thiosulfate must be standardized before use. Several excellent primary standards are available for the standardization of thiosulfate solutions. In general, these are oxidizing agents that liberate an equivalent amount of diiodine when treated with an excess of iodide ion. The resulting solution containing the diiodine is titrated with the thiosulfate. Two commonly used primary standards are potassium dichromate and potassium iodate. Since the dichromate ion is carcinogenic, potassium iodate will be used. The reactions in the standardization are the same reactions occurring in the analysis of bleach. A known amount of potassium iodate is measured and reacted with excess iodide in acid to produce diiodine (Equation 7). The diiodine is titrated with the thiosulfate (Equation 6) and its concentration is calculated from stoichiometry. KIO3(aq) + 5KI(aq) + 6HCl(aq) à 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l)(7) Procedure: Iodometric Method Standardization of Sodium Thiosulfate Obtain 100 mL of the sodium thiosulfate for standardization. Setup a burette using a ring stand and burette clamp. Drain the burette and add some distilled water to check for leaks. Add about 5 mL of the thiosulfate solution to the burette and wash the walls and drain the solution through the tip. Discard. Repeat two more times. Fill the burette with the thiosulfate solution including the tip (make sure there are no air bubbles in the tip) and record the initial volume to 0.01 mL. Record the mass of a clean 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The flask may be wet on the inside but the outside of flask must be dry. Add the required amount of the standard KIO3 solution (see instructor) to the flask and record the mass of the flask and solution. Record the mass percent concentration of the KIO3 solution. Add 25 mL of distilled water and 1.0 g KI. Once the KI dissolves, add 10 mL of 1.0 M HCl and titrate immediately with the thiosulfate solution until the color of the solution becomes pale yellow. At this point add 5 mL of the starch indicator and titrate to the disappearance of the blue color. Record the final volume of thiosulfate solution to 0.01 mL. Repeat the titration two more times. Note: The burette should never be refilled during a titration as this increases the error in volume. If the burette does not contain enough solution to complete a titration, refill before beginning. Analysis of Bleach Obtain 40 mL of the commercial bleach, a 250 mL volumetric flask, and a 20 mL pipette. Pipette 20 mL of the bleach and transfer it to the volumetric flask. Fill the flask with distilled water to the mark. Cover the flask and mix the solution well by inverting and shaking 15 times. Obtain a second burette and prepare it with the diluted bleach solution. After rinsing it 3 times, fill the burette and tip with the diluted bleach solution. Record the initial volume to 0.01 mL. Add about 25 mL of the bleach solution in the burette to a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Record the final volume of bleach to 0.01 mL. Record the initial volume of thiosulfate to 0.01 mL. Add 25 mL of distilled water and 1.0 g of solid KI. Once the KI dissolves, add 10 mL of 1.0 M HCl and titrate immediately with the standardized Na2S2O3 solution until the color of the solution becomes pale yellow. Add 5 mL of starch and titrate to the disappearance of the blue color. Record the volume of the thiosulfate to 0.01 mL. Repeat the analysis two more times. Discard all solutions as directed by the instructor. Rinse the burettes with distilled water, multiple times, and refill with distilled water. Store the burette completely filled with distilled water and stoppered. Page BreakAnalysis of Bleach, Sodium Hypochlorite Name Partner’s Name Data Standardization of Na2S2O3 Solution Mass Percent of Potassium iodate Sample 1Sample 2Sample 3 Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask and KIO3 solution Initial Volume of Na2S2O3 Final Volume of Na2S2O3 Calculations (Attach a separate page showing the calculations) Mass of KIO3 solution Mass of pure KIO3 used Moles of pure KIO3 used Moles of I2 produced Moles of Na2S2O3 present Volume of Na2S2O3 used Molarity of Na2S2O3 Average Molarity of Standardized Na2S2O3 Solution Data Analysis of Commercial Bleach Density of Commercial Bleach Volume of Commercial Bleach used Diluted Volume Sample 1Sample 2Sample 3 Initial Volume of Diluted NaOCl Final Volume of Diluted NaOCl Initial Volume of Na2S2O3 Final Volume of Na2S2O3 Calculations (Attach calculation sheet) Volume of Na2S2O3 used Moles of Na2S2O3 present Moles of I2 present Moles of NaOCl present Volume of NaOCl used Molarity of NaOCl Average Molarity of Diluted NaOCl Solution Molarity of Commercial Bleach Page BreakQuestions 1.What were your results? What did you learn in this experiment? 2.Using the density of commercial bleach and your molarity for the commercial bleach, calculate the mass percent NaOCl for the commercial bleach? Obtain the reported mass percent for the bleach used from the instructor and determine the percent error using the reported mass percent as the accepted value. 3.Why is it necessary to titrate the solution immediately following the addition of KI? Explain. 4.Why is it important to use excess KI? Explain.



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FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTIONS Friedel-Crafts reactions provide a method for the preparation of alkylbenzenes (ArR) and acylbenzenes (ArCOR). These reactions are called Fricdel-Crafts alkylation and Friedel-Crafts acylation. A Friedel-Crafts Alkylation The following is a general equation for a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) The mechanism for the reaction starts with the formation of a carbocation. The carbocation then acts as an electrophile and is attacked by the benzene ring to form an arenium ion. The arenium ion then loses a proton. This mechanism is illustrated below using 2 -chloropropane and benzenc. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) This is a Lewis acid-base reaction (see Section $15.3)$ The complex dissociates to form a carbocation and $\mathrm{AlCl}_{4}^{-}.$ (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) The carbocation, acting as an electrophile, reacts with benzene to produce an arenium ion. A proton is removed from the arenium ion to form isopropylbenzene. This step also regenerates the AlCl_ and liberates HCI. When $R-X$ is a primary halide, a simple carbocation probably does not form. Instead, the aluminum chloride forms a complex with the alkyl halide, and this complex acts as the electrophile. The complex is one in which the carbon-halogen bond is nearly broken-and one in which the carbon atom has a considerable positive charge: (equation can't copy) Even though this complex is not a simple carbocation, it acts as if it were and it transfers a positive alkyl group to the aromatic ring. These complexes react so much like carbocations that they also undergo typical carbocation rearrangements (Sction $15.6 \mathrm{C}).$ Friedel-Crafts alkylations are not restricted to the use of alkyl halides and aluminum chloride. Other pairs of reagents that form carbocations (or species like carbocations) may be used in Friedel-Crafts alkylations as well. These possibilities include the use of a mixture of an alkene and an acid: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Propene Isopropylbenzene (cumene) $(84 \%)$ (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Cyclohexene Cyclohexylbenzene $(62 \%)$ A mixture of an alcohol and an acid may also be used: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Cyclohexanol Cyclohexylbenzene $(56 \%)$ There are several important limitations of the Friedel-Crafts reaction. These are discussed in Section $15.6 \mathrm{C}.$ Outline all steps in a reasonable mechanism for the formation of isopropylbenzene from propene and benzene in liquid HF (just shown). Your mechanism must account for the product being isopropylbenzene, not propylbenzene. THE CHEMISTRY OF.... industrial Styrene Synthesis Styrene is one of the most important industrial chemicalsmore than 11 billion pounds is produced each year. The starting material for a major commercial synthesis of styrene is ethylbenzene, produced by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Styrene $(90-92 \% \text { yield })$ Most styrene is polymerized (Special Topic C) to the familiar plastic, polystyrene: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Polystyrene B Friedel-Crafts Acylation The $R$ group is called an acyl group, and a reaction whereby an acy group is introduced into a compound is called an acylation reaction. Two common acyl groups are the acetyl group and the benzoyl group. (The benzoyl group should not be confused with the benzyl group, $\left.-\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{5} ; \text { see Section } 14.2 .\right)$ (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Acetyl group (ethanoyl group) Benzoyl group The Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction is often carried out by treating the aromatic compound with an acyl halide (often an acyl chloride). Unless the aromatic compound is one that is highly reactive, the reaction requires the addition of at least one equivalent of a Lewis acid (such as $\mathrm{AlCl}_{3}$ ) as well. The product of the reaction is an aryl ketone: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Acetyl chloride Acetophenone (methyl phenyl ketone) $(97 \%)$ Acyl chlorides, also called acid chlorides, are easily prepared (Section 18.5 ) by treating carboxylic acids with thionyl chloride (SOCI_) or phosphorus pentachloride (PCI_): (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Acetic acid Thionyl chloride Acetyl chloride $(80-90 \%)$ (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Benzoic acid Phosphorus pentachloride Benzoyl chloride $(90 \%)$ Friedel-Crafts acylations can also be carried out using carboxylic acid anhydrides. For example, (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Acetic anhydride (a carboxylic acid anhydride) Acetophenone $(82-85 \%)$ In most Friedel-Crafts acylations the electrophile appears to be an acylium ion formed from an acyl halide in the following way: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) An acylium ion (a resonance hybrid) Show how an acylium ion could be formed from acetic anhydride in the presence of $\mathrm{AlCl}_{3}.$ STRATEGY AND ANSWER: We recognize that AICl_, is a Lewis acid and that an acid anhydride, because it has multiple unshared electron pairs, is a Lewis base. A reasonable mechanism starts with a Lewis acid-base reaction and proceeds to form an acylium ion in the following way. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Acylium ion The remaining steps in the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene are the following: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) other resonance structures (draw them for practice) The acylium ion, acting as an electrophile, reacts with benzene to form the arenium ion. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) A proton is removed from the arenium ion, forming the aryl ketone. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) The ketone, acting as a Lewis base, reacts with aluminum chloride (a Lewis acid) to form a complex. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Treating the complex with water liberates the ketone and hydrolyzes the Lewis acid. Limitations of Friedel-Crafts Reactions Several restrictions limit the usefulness of Fricdel-Crafts reactions: 1. When the carbocation formed from an alkyl halide, alkene, or alcohol can rearrange to one or more carbocations that are more stable, it usually does so, and the major products obtained from the reaction are usually those from the more stable carbocations. When benzene is alkylated with butyl bromide, for example, some of the developing butyl cations rearrange by a hydride shift. Some of the developing $1^{\circ}$ carbocations (see following reactions) become more stable $2^{\circ}$ carbocations. Then benzene reacts with both kinds of carbocations to form both butylbenzene and sec-butylbenzene: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Butylbenzene $(32-36 \% \text { of mixture })$ sec-Butylbenzene $(64-68 \% \text { of mixture })$ 2. Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions usually give poor yields when powerful electron-withdrawing groups (Section $15.8 \mathrm{B}$ and Table 15.1 ) are present on the aromatic ring. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) These usually give poor yields in Friedel-Crafts reactions because the ring is electron deficient. Poor yiclds are also the case when the ring bears an $-\mathrm{NH}_{2},-\mathrm{NHR},$ or $-\mathrm{NR}_{2}$ group because they become electron-withdrawing when they react with the Lewis acid in the reaction mixture. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Does not undergo a Friedel-Crafts reaction These groups are changed into powerful electron-withdrawing groups by the Lewis acids used to catalyze Friedel-Crafts reactions. 3. Aryl and vinylic halides cannot be used as the halide component because they do not form carbocations readily (see Section $6.14 \mathrm{A}$ ): (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) No Friedel-Crafts reaction because the halide is at an $s p^{2}$ carbon. 4. Polyalkylations often occur. Alkyl groups are inductive electron-donating groups (Sections $15.8 \text { and } 15.9),$ and once one is introduced into the benzene ring, it activates the ring toward further substitution: (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Isopropylbenzene $(24 \%)$ $p$ -Diisopropylbenzene $(14 \%)$ Polyacylations are not a problem in Friedel-Crafts acylations. The acyl group (-COR) by itself is an electron-withdrawing group, and when it forms a complex with AlCl in the last step of the reaction (Section $15.6 \mathrm{B}),$ it is made even more electron withdrawing. This strongly inhibits further substitution and makes monoacylation easy. When benzene reacts with 1-chloro-2,2-dimethylpropane (neopentyl chloride) in the presence of aluminum chloride, the major product is 2 -methyl-2-phenylbutanc, not 2,2 -dimethyl-1-phenylpropane (neopentylbenzenc). Explain this result. STRATEGY AND ANSWER: The carbocation formed by direct reaction of AICl_, with 1-chloro-2,2-dimethylpropane would be a primary carbocation; however, it rearranges to the more stable tertiary carbocation before it reacts with the benzene ring. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) Provide a mechanism that accounts for the following result. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY)

Predict products or the fallen reactions. Dorian L. Sulfuric. That's Ah. So finish which goes toe the pair in the positions because 63 group is a hearted contributed a dollar dessert. Is it liberation? The car parks. A group is a resonance except her. Yeah, the try substitution goes to the net position Bremen nation off matter benzene. The letter group is an inductive, except er and business, except er so substitution goes to the net position insulation or for isopropyl Benzia I support group. That's ah Harper conjugated donor. So substitution goes toe the parrot in Ortho position. However you to the stereo hinderance imposed by the I support group. The author I, Samir is almost not existent. Just traces its most repaired. I, Samir.

Predict results for the two foreign reaction. One finger prep. In with its shell, it's you will return it while a figure prepping and bread use a more stable Ben Zizek crocodile ritual. Capture CR minus on Give the world the alternative. Kavika Tile at this carbon would be less stable because of the leg off education with it benzene for hundreds inoculation. The reaction proceeds through Make uranium on the press. The charge will be distributed between America and roaster gerbils, and this carbon will have more positive charge because it will be better. Gillick allies back in education with the benzene. So this position, well being attacked with water with the bunt with maker comes off on America is a benched through the other carbon and then deport the nation and removal, or for America by reducing agent Junior it in Alcohol River Bridge Group in the bin Zigic position

Explain why the connection without good excites and we've been excited. It's two different products. Let's look at the mechanism with our without backsides but the Nation actress first step and it produces Benzie like Come Pick a Time which is further stabilized by untraditional. Were fifteens in it in, for instance. Oh, structure was shows conjugation and this camera car time is most stable with public art time at this common, which is making conjugation with the benzene in. That's why this the assured direction off the reaction and a combination with BR minus gives you the major product in the prisons or both sides they have taken. Spacious is different. That's the radical of woman and unethical of woman. Also wants toe form Benzia political fishhook, and it's, ah, most able than medical at this carbon. For the same reason that would be liking education off the benzene green. And then on the next step over chain propagation, the medical reacts with them. HBR Junior is another. They are dark and gives the product

Fennel visited, which can be produced from funeral, is less reactive than funeral in automatic. There are a few exceptions fearful. Explain what it's this, but the group is still Order Pereira director. Just like hydroxy group, you know, So I don't see a group in. Fino is a force of credit director because over too long in the pants, which supplies elections, most it through the orphan and better positions, this group still has to look natural in prayer on oxygen, which pretty X the same way as the age group. In funeral, however, the compound is less reactive because for conjugation off long and compare with adjusting Gruber. No, which most away park the church former our since one So the little there compares on oxygen become less active.


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