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In plants; floral organs develop from concentric rings of tissue called whorls. Begi inning from the most outside ring whorl develops into sepals; whorl develops in...

Question

In plants; floral organs develop from concentric rings of tissue called whorls. Begi inning from the most outside ring whorl develops into sepals; whorl develops into etals; whorl develops into stamens, and whorl develops into carpels. Analogous to the_homeotic mutants ol Dros phila ecessive mutations were found in genes that encode transcription factors These mutants change the organ identity of given whorl to the identity of different whorl. The following table shows the mutant phenotypes caus

In plants; floral organs develop from concentric rings of tissue called whorls. Begi inning from the most outside ring whorl develops into sepals; whorl develops into etals; whorl develops into stamens, and whorl develops into carpels. Analogous to the_homeotic mutants ol Dros phila ecessive mutations were found in genes that encode transcription factors These mutants change the organ identity of given whorl to the identity of different whorl. The following table shows the mutant phenotypes caused by various floral organ mutations found in the genetic model plant; Arabidopsis. Genotype Whorl wild-type ap2 Iap2 sepals petals stamens carpels carpels stamens stamens carpels ap3 lap3 sepals sepals sepals carpels carpels ag lag petals petals sepals Based on the table above, which whorls require functional AP2 gene All four whorls whorls and 2 whorls and 3 whorls and whorls 2 and



Answers

In a certain plant, the flower petals are normally purple. Two recessive mutations arise in separate plants and are found to be on different chromosomes. Mutation $1\left(m_{1}\right)$ gives blue petals when homozygous $\left(m_{1} / m_{1}\right) .$ Mutation $2\left(m_{2}\right)$ gives red petals when homozygous $\left(m_{2} / m_{2}\right)$ Biochemists working on the synthesis of flower pigments in this species have already described the following pathway: a. Which mutant would you expect to be deficient in enzyme A activity? b. $A$ plant has the genotype $M_{1} / m_{1} ; M_{2} / m_{2} .$ What would you expect its phenotype to be? c. If the plant in part $b$ is selfed, what colors of progeny would you expect and in what proportions? d. Why are these mutants recessive?

Hello and welcome to this question. So we're going to read this out loud together, and then we're going to go through and answer this some inbred strains of the weedy plant, a rabid ops ISD Alania flower early in the growing season, but other strange flower at later times four different rapid ops plants signified by the numbers one through four were crossed on. The resulting progeny were tabulated as follows. So here we see a table. We see the mating pairs, the parents being one and 21 and 31 and 42 and 32 and 43 and four. In this case, we have each member one through four. Meeting with someone else that is not itself progeny stands for is a fancy way to say What are the results of this mating pair? What are the offspring going to be? What are the Children going to be? And then we have these questions below. So what I did before I made this video as I cut up these questions and I laid them out, um, singularly. So it's a little bit easier for us to go through and process what question we're on. So we're gonna start off with a explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. So to make this easy, I'm going to go to the Internet and I'm gonna grab a picture of a RAB, adopt this Arabidopsis Melania, just to make it easy to explain what it is that we're doing. So explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. What this question is asking is why do we have two different flowering times for the same plant genetically? Why does that happen? And there's quite a simple explanation for this, so I'm gonna explain it beneath here. Imagine we have this big line and what this line means is we have some plants that are going to flower early, and we have some plants that are going to flower late. And I told you I was gonna go to Google and find a picture. This is a rabbit. Ops is cute little flower, uh, in biology. We use this for a lot of different experiments because it has a very quick, uh, lifespan and were able to see things happen really quickly and we can use it for a lot of things. So before there was these four different Arabidopsis plants. There used to be just one big Arabidopsis family and a lot of the flowers all came up at around the same time. But as I'm placing more and more of these flowers here, you're noticing they're getting pretty, overly crowded and maybe they're competing with each other. They're taking up too much space in front of each other and they're not able were not able to see all the pretty flowers. But if we go to the edges, we start to see that you can see some plants that are kind of sticking out more than others. We had a bunch of flowers right in the middle here. And what's going to happen in reality is these flowers, the roots are gonna be not be able to absorb as much nutrients. We're going to have the pollinators not able to reach the flowers. We're going to have less sunlight exposed to the leaves into the stem for in order for photosynthesis to happen, and in general we're going to see resources not be able to reach these areas. And the sad fact is these flowers are not going to do very well here in the middle. We're going to see these flowers die off and what we're left with are some flowers that due to random happenstance, they happened to flour a little bit earlier or they happen to flour a little bit later. So these flowers here were then able to make more flowers and they were able to survive. These flowers over here and early were able to make four flowers and they were able to survive. So explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. A good way to write this out. You can look at the text answer for this question. But another way to say this would be over time. Adaptations made by the RAB Adopt sis plant allowed for two separate flowering times in order to increase the long term survivability of the plant over time. This didn't happen right away. Adaptations changes into how the plants grew were made by the rapid app, says plant, and allowed for two separate flowering times in order to increase the long term survivability of the plant. These flowers want to survive. That's the rule of life. You want to create more of yourself, so a way that the Arabidopsis plant found a way to do that was to do this, feel free to pause, feel free to review. Feel free to rewind. I'm going to delete these pictures now and go through with the second question. So second question. Alright, let's put a little check mark here Teaching second question of a how do you know that among this group of plants, the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene. So in biology, we find that there are a lot of times that things make patterns and this is true in this case as well. You may not recognize it at first, but we see patterns here in the progeny. Let me explain. First thing, I'm going to look at our these 134 lates these 111 lates in these 126 lates compared to the others, there's no early here, so I know that in this case I have 100% late and I see that copied are not copy. But I see that repeated again here 100% are late and here 100% are late. Seeing this I know that these crosses here are always going to produce 100% late due to the genes that we're going to get into in part B for this first mating pair 77 late 81 early and this other pair 65 late and 61 early. What I see here is roughly that's what this little squiggle means roughly a 50 50 split. It's not exact, because things aren't always exactly the same in nature. But we see roughly a 50 50 split here. I can also see that same roughly 50 50 split here, 65 to 61. The key takeaway. How I know for sure that this plant is the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene. Is this trait right here? 93 32. I see a 75 25% split when I see this. I know for a fact that this is going to be a traditional, stereotypical dominant recessive competition going on right here. We're going to explain that here in this third part, as well as and be before we continue on to put a little check here, so I know that the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene based on the proportions that I see here. For the third part of this question, which illegal is dominant and which is recessive, I'm going to give you a couple of seconds just to pause and think about which one of these do you think is the dominant trait, And what do you think are the recessive trait? If you're thinking to yourself late, it is the dominant trait. Way to go. So which illegals dominant, which is recessive and all three of these crosses. We see that the late trait is the one that comes out in this case. Here we see that the late trait is the one that is more than the early trait, so we know that the late trait is the dominant trait. So let's do some investigating ascribe Jenna types of the four plants. It's a fancy way to say what Geno types do these four plants have. When I was talking about the second part of a looking at this trait right here 75 25 I know when I see this split, it always indicates that I have a two hetero zegas, uh, meeting up together. So in this case, what we're going to say is we are going to say that a capital G stands for late and a lower case G stands for early. These are Leal's. These are the Alil. These are the genetic traits that are going to be passed on. So with that being said, I'm going to do this answer over here just because there's more space. I know that one and four. I know that one is going to be a hetero Zenga's, and I know that four is going to be hetero sickos. So to find out what the others are going to be, I need to look at what the other competitions are. So I need to find out what two and three are. Let's look at this mating pair between one and two. I see that I have roughly a 50 50 split, which means that I'm going to have half of my jeans being at least one big G and half of my jeans are going to be a little little in order to cross that with this guy. I know that my second is going to be a little G little g. Finally, three. I could do the same thing. I see that we have 100% all late, which means that no matter what, this is going to be a big G big G just to double check ourselves. Let's do some crosses and see what we get when we cross these answers here. So in order to do that, I'm going to make a two by three grid, and we're going to do some crosses in here. All right, so in this case, we're going to have the one by two in this box. We're going to have one by four. And in this box down here, we're going to have to buy four in this box up here. We're gonna have the one by three in this box here. We're going to have the two by three. And in this box here, we're going to have the three by four. Excellent. I'm gonna switch over to my pencil and use a smaller Fine. So when I crossed my one by two, I get big G, little g, big g, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G. When I crossed the one by three. I'm gonna get biggie. Biggie, Biggie, Biggie. Biggie. Little G Big G, little G. When I crossed the one by four, I get biggie Biggie, Biggie little G big G, little G, little G little G. When I cross the two by three, I get the big G little G big G, little G, big G, little G, Big G, little G. When I crossed the two by four, I get big G little G big G, little G, little G, little G. It's, like more like a Y and little G, little G. And finally, when I crossed the three by four, I get biggie Biggie, biggie, biggie. Biggie, little G big G, little G. So let's talk it out. If I cross this correctly, I should have a roughly 50% late and 50% early. And that's what I see up here. If I crossed the one by three, I get all late, and that's what I see up here. If I crossed the one by four, I should get 75% late, 25% early. That's what I see here. If I cross the two by three, I should have all late. That's what I see here. If I cross the two by four, I should have 50 50 roughly. That's what I see here. And finally, if I crossed the three by four, I should have all late. And that's what I see here. So I know that these Gino types are correct. 15. Lastly for questions, See, what kinds of progeny would you expect if you allowed plants one of four to self fertilize and in what ratios? So we know that we have our Gina types here. 123 and four. What happens if we have them self fertilized? So we know for one and four, we're going to have this exact same copy here because we're going to have hetero sickos, times, hetero sickos. So one in four are going to look exactly the same like this. We're going to have a biggie, biggie, biggie, little G, big G, little G, little G, little G. And we're going to have 75% late with 25% early. We see two is going to be a little G little g by a little G, little G. So all of our offspring 42 are gonna be little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, 100% early. And finally for three. We're going to do three over here. We're going to have all big G progeny with 100% late check.

Okay, since b and C jeans specify statements, but she also does carpools. Then, if a mutation rendered be inactive, then some of the flowers might be missing statements consisting of everything else about the statement.

Two versions? Yeah. Of musicians, Yeah. Yeah. In wenjing. Mhm. Cost birthdays. Mhm. Yeah. To develop, Yeah. S surplus. Okay. And diamonds. Thank you, mm hmm. Mhm. Yeah. To develop as carpools. Mhm. Another two musicians and detergent caused right almonds. Mhm. To develop. Mhm. As birthdays. Thank you. Yeah. And and entirely. Mhm. New flower. Mhm. Yeah, develop in case of corpus mhm. Mhm. Mhm.

Before we do these process, let's identify what's going on. Color is controlled by two genes. You have a routine and a painting. And so this is what I assume to do these policies that blue is controlled by the presence of the dominant wild type gene and so wild type will be blue. If, though, it's a recessive gene, so this wild type will be big A than that flower will exhibit white coloration. Now for the pink. I'm assuming the same thing for wild type thing. Hope Call that capital seeing. And don't be pink resistant version of that being little being is going to be white. And so last month I think it is going on with this Toller. Um okay, so let's do cross one across one. The parents were blue cost with white F one. All the offspring were blue and in the F two there was a three blue to one white ratio. So we can use our information appear in the blue and pink area to identify the parents. Do you know, tighten things like that? So is the F one. We're all blue. Well, let's work backwards. The parents had to be big any big a big, big meets with these woods and what was mutated to get white. You're no pink in the F too. So that means we cannot have it be a little bit because or too little these because that will be pink. So then we could bring these together. You get a little a Just do across between the parents. Do you think a big a big be big because they're blue? And then when we divide these out, you're going to get three that are big A something big, big, big bean And those are blue and you're gonna get one whites, which is too little eggs because the blue pathways failing And the gene product from a can't convert that to a color the G product be convert to pink or a different color. So it's gonna be what his blue and pink er at the Satti? Okay, Cross to the parents were blue and he and there is one was blue in the F two. They were three blue, one pink. So again, we need to plan for this pink. So that means the parents are going to blue. So home was like a song that for both the wheels across with a plant that has a functional blue pathway with a failed pink pathway. And so this week he'll paint later on. All of the individuals in the F one are blue, Which makes sense is your pencil blew past big, big A Make me a little B and you're gonna love it Planned to sell, fertilize and is that at 23 blood plants it's gonna be a big a big A make me something and they're going to be blue And then the one individual is gonna be a big a big A and a failed second pathway. And so that flower is one to be because this gene product of A is producing some sort of color and that's paying that normally gene product be would work on to convert that to blue. So we have a failed pathway to make things. So then we could do cross three. Across three is a pink parent, Ross with white parents. You're F one begin all blue in the F two. We see that we have blue, pink and white. So we have a nine 331 ratio where you have a long It's Polasek. You have nine Blue. You have three. Okay, you have four that are white. And so we can figure this out CPC because we know that we get a 9331 ratio from two headers. Ike, it's that air breathing in the F one. And now we can just simply work backwards. The pink parent has to be okay. Big. A little A little b cross with a big, little, a little a big be big be parents And we can bring those together to form the F one offspring, which then can give rise to a knife through 31 ratio in get to And so this blue with big a something be something and be blue This pink parents is gonna be a gay Something to little Bee's has remembered but a functional first pathway in a failed second pathway This three is gonna be re gay. Oh, I'm sorry. What struck me was that is going to be a little a little a big be something. And then the second light this one it's gonna be homes like this. Process it for But this failed A pathway prevents the intermediate from forming that GV can Cooper to a different polar. So we can summarize like this when jean a ISS homes. I guess so. Jean A is homeless. I guess it blocks or mass speed, and that's what we see here. Jean A is homeless, I guess. Process it in both of these and it produces a white color so we can conclude that white is episodic to paint and wood. It is likely that gene a product produces an intermediate that's modified by Jean Need product. So then play a little, a little a this intermediate and not made. It produces the bi product, and so that makes sense. So let's work our way through Be part we just move this up a little bit. Be part asks Essentially, if you cross a blue flower with a wife flower and you end up with three eights blue one a thing and 1/2 of it, I'm gonna leave it us 48 white. What are the genus hearts of the parents? Well, so we can figure this out by putting in information we know. And so we know that Wu has to be a something be something and so we can put that in both places because there's no other way to get blue without a dominant Leo. For each dean, we also know yet has to little bee's. So it has to be big A something to Little Bee's. And White has to have a failed a pathway. And so if a pathway fails, he doesn't matter because the first thing that is not going to be there. And so why Years have too little A's and we don't know they're the meals for the second. So the first thing you have to ask yourself is that we know that A and B B brother here in the offspring So what I would do this. See, this year and this year tells you that we have to have some a wheels in the parents that our home is, I guess, recessive. And so you put them in a year and here so that will take care of the will. Your parents and at least here and then we could fill in the offspring, okay. And me we'll get killed this one in when we could feel this swing. Then what we could do is is the white parents homes I guess processing or headers. Likeness. And that's actually a really easy question to find out if White parent was homos, I guess. Process it. So a B B Remember, that would be a test frost, because test process, breathe a headers I go with the home is I guess process it. And the outcome of that would actually be one blue Teoh, one pink to two white flowers. Or it would be one a b like this. So one big a little, a little B once a little, a little a sticky little bee in one a. You can see that this is not what we have. And so that only leaves us with the possibility that the white is actually a headers. I get so that be and that we have to go that way. And so we know this is true with the capital bees because a test cross was not observed. And so that's the way you work through it. Always write down what you know first, Then ask yourself what are obvious things I could fill in. And for this one, it's what are gonna assessable wheels. If you have too little a together and to little bee's together in your outcome. The offspring's Gina tights. They have to be in the parents and then ask yourself, What under knowledge do I have that I can use As of this question? And I was using it, test cross information was appropriate choice.


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