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Write mechanisms for the following reactions using arrows to show the electron movement for each step of the reaction_ Show all steps, including proton transfers as...

Question

Write mechanisms for the following reactions using arrows to show the electron movement for each step of the reaction_ Show all steps, including proton transfers as separate steps; balance all equations_ Use Kekule-Lewis structures (bonding lectrons a5 lines, lone pairs as dots, show all formal charges).Cl CIz C#z CI (cch FoF PrEetel hy 22) (b) fEce Ch;-e-O-Ch; cha-Cro-c_CHz (all stees ) chfhoh

Write mechanisms for the following reactions using arrows to show the electron movement for each step of the reaction_ Show all steps, including proton transfers as separate steps; balance all equations_ Use Kekule-Lewis structures (bonding lectrons a5 lines, lone pairs as dots, show all formal charges). Cl CIz C#z CI (cch FoF PrEetel hy 22) (b) fEce Ch;-e-O-Ch; cha-Cro-c_CHz (all stees ) chfhoh



Answers

Write a mechanism for the following reaction. Include formal charges and curved arrows to show the movement of electrons in all steps. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY)

U. S. Bases are spaces with available electrons that can be donated to form new boss. Whereas used assets are spaces that can accept these electron pairs to form new bonds. Since louis accepts accepts a pair of electrons, it is called an electrified and louis basis is called nuclear five because they don't excite electrons need to so the electrons where nucleus with empty or by that. Yeah Diameter I am I that is th three or twice and it the X week A C. L. To form diameter ammonia. I am C. S. C. Or twice and they stoop positive and chlorine that is C. L minus nitrogen atom has one round pair of electrons and chlorine has shed on pairs of electrons. The long pair of electrons of nitrogen donated to fund bond with hydrogen atoms as a dessert. The bonded electron sifted to product and thus the clothing of the product site as full grown a pair of electrons. Since the image I am, I donate lone pair of electrons, it is known as the newest space as well as nuclear. Right and A. C. L. Except electron does. It is known as louis as it. And electro fight the diameter and mine the absolute metal products C. S. C. Or twice and eight. This is diameter. Am I the excess weight metal products? It is A C. C. See it to form trying me type ammonia ion that is C. S. C. Both price and it positive less chlorine, iron, it is C. L minus iron. The nitrogen atom has want on pair of electrons and chlorine. Has she gone pair of electrons that one pair of electrons of nitrogen donated to form a bond with middle group of middle, correct as a dessert. This bonded electrons to clothing and according of the product side has four pair of electrons since diameter. Um I donate long pair of electrons. It is known as newly space and also known as Snake Bill Fight. Where it is metal chloride, except one pair of electrons does. It is known as louis asset, mhm electro file.

Okay. This problem is asking us to follow these curved or mechanisms and then write down the products of them. OK, so let's go to this first direction. We have a key tone reaction with Boron. Try fluoride. That's because we have this key tone right here. And then we have the B of three over here. Okay, So what's occurring in this curved air mechanism whenever we have a curved air mechanism that is representing the flow of electrons are the movement of electrons. And as you can see, we're forming a bond between this oxygen. The electrons in the oxygen were formed A bond between the oxygen and this boron or using these electrons to make a bond between that extra in this born. Okay, So what's going to occur is exactly that I'm gonna draw out Mikey tone just like I did before. And then I'm not breaking any bonds. All I'm doing is forming Bonds. If I were to break the bond, it would be represented something like this and which would break the bond between my born and my floor and just like that. But again, we don't have that. So I'm forming that bond between the auction and this boron of my BF three. Nothing else is breaking. Okay, so that would be the product so far. But we're not done. And that is because we have to have the positive and negative charges associated with each of those compounds. Because, as you can see, we're forming a bond on this oxygen. Okay, Before as this key tone just by itself, that oxygen had a full octet. Right, Because I had these two electrons right here to love trends were here, and then the four electrons associated with that double bond. Okay, but if we're forming a new bond from the oxygen to this poor on the electrons founder here, they're being shared between this auction and this born. That means that if you can kind of think about it simplified down, one electron is being conserved on this oxygen, and then the other electron is being placed onto this born. So basically that oxygen is losing an electron. So that means that is gonna have a positive charge with it now. Okay, what about this moron? So this boron, just as it was written before it looks like this in which we have be connected to my F and then flooring, and then another. Flooring is that is the structure of my Boardman. And this boron doesn't actually need to have a full octet. It's actually relatively happy just in the state that it is right now, we're gonna have six of those electrons as opposed to eight. Okay, But as I said before, it's happy right here. But if we're forming a new bond onto that born, that means that that born is gaining electrons, right? We're sharing the set of electrons from this oxygen, and we're sharing it between the auction and that born meaning that I'm placing a new electron on that born, and I'm having that bond connected to my oxygen. So again, I'm adding an electron to my born. Is that important? Is gonna have a negative charge just like that. Okay, next up, we have my dimethyl ether racking with my BF three Boron tried for it. So this is very similar to the previous problem in which I have an oxygen attacking a boron, specifically the electrons attacking that boron. So I'm not breaking any bonds. All I'm doing is forming a bond, so I have my dimethyl either. And then I'm forming a bond between my auction and my Boardman just like this. And I'm not changing anything else. All I'm doing is adding that bond. Okay? But I do have to add my positive and negative charges. Right? Because again, we had the two electrons on this oxygen before those two sets of options. So we had to for six fund laban and ate that oxygen, had a full attack, had a neutral charge. No, not positive, nor negative. And if I'm forming a bond between this oxygen was born again. If we're sharing a set of electrons found in that bond, that means that if we can kind of simplify down one electron is being conserved on this auction, the other electron as being placed on that boron. So this oxygen is losing an electron in this boron is gaining an electron. So that's what we have to represent the positive charge of this oxygen and the negative charge on that born Kate, because that born is gaining an electron. Okay, next step we have this one. So for this one, we have a curb oxalic acid reacting with H CEO. So each of the seal is a very strong acid. That's why we have this pronation step in the first place specifically for this oxygen. The electrons on this auction. So we're forming a bond between this auction and this hydrogen. And then, as you can see it, we're breaking a bond, right? Because the electrons are originating from this bond and they're being pushed onto this Korean. Okay, So any time we have a set of Eric curved arrow mechanisms, if the curved arrow mechanism begins with a set of electrons such as these lone pairs and it's being pushed onto another Adam, that's the formation of a bond. But if it originates from a set of are just a bond and it's being pushed onto an atom that is breaking a bond. Okay, so those curved ever mechanisms can be comming different things. They can be formed bonds or breaking bones in this case for this specific arrow or forming a bond. Okay, so I'm gonna write down my same structures before my car box. Look, acid, just like this, and again, we're forming a bond between this oxygen and this hydrogen, so I'm gonna have to write down that hydrogen over here, Okay? And again, we're breaking the bond between the hydrogen and the chlorine just like that. So I'm gonna have to move those electrons onto that, Corinne, just like this. Chlorine is not gonna have a negative charge on it. Because I gained electrons on the Korean simply by the movement of electrons onto that corn. And then as far as that car, box or gas, it goes again. This oxygen found in my carbon. Neil had two sets of lone pairs to four, and then 68 found in that double bond. Okay, so it's sharing these electrons right here with the hydrogen. And if I'm sure in electrons, that means that Warren can stay, and then the other is gonna go into my hydrogen. So that's why the oxygen is going to have a positive charge, right? Because it's losing that electron to that bond with the hydrogen. And then, as we know, hydrogen only has one electron in the first place. So that's why it just remains neutral. Okay, so now let's go ahead and move onto the next one. So for this one, we have this alcohol lithium reacting with my alcohol. So a lot of arrows happening here for at least a very long ones, right? We have this law narrow all the way to my hydrogen originating from this bond and then the bond breakage over here. So, as you can see, we have the origination of that curved arrow from this bond. And then we also have the origination of this curve zero from Miss Bond. If curved arrows are originate on bonds, that is representative of bond breakage. If we had them originated from lone pairs, for example, that would be representative of bond formation. So what was gonna happen? Let's start off with this alcohol. I'm breaking the bond between that hydrogen and the oxygen and then pushing those elections onto the oxygen. That means that I'm gonna have the formation of this product in which I have my oxygen like this with its set of one Paris, right, Because I used to share those electrons between the auction and the hydrogen. And if I'm moving them specifically onto the auction, that means I'm gaining an electron on the oxygen. Okay, Now, what about this one? So I'm breaking a bond between this lithium and this stage too. But as you can see, we're breaking that bond and not pushing it onto this. Quote carbon are actually pushing it onto this hydrogen. So this is actually representative of bond breakage and formation. Right? Because we're breaking the bond between the stage two and then let them. But we're moving them onto this hydrogen that is representative of bond formation. We're forming a bond between that ch two and the H K. So, what's gonna occur? I'm gonna have my siege. Three. Let's see how many carbons we have. Actually, we have 1234 So, um, detained. So ch two ch two and then see three. Okay, So what is it? Ch three on the end? That's because we used tohave ch two, but because we're adding another hydrogen found from the alcohol, That is why we're gonna have ch three. Okay? And again, we're gonna have to break that bond between the ch two and dilithium. So that's why we're gonna just have lithium just as a positive charge. Right? Because lithium has I believe it's just one set of electrons. But if we're moving electrons away from that lithium, that means it's gonna have that posit charge. So this officer of the night you charge and this lithium with a positive charge, those are gonna be, ironically, bonded to each other. Okay? And that will be all the answers.

Answer for party In this reaction, zinc chloride is a Louise, I seemed. And methanol. He's a loving basis. So the mechanism of the reaction year zinc low, right, Seeing single bone seon thing Single bones here tinkle right less MacDonald See is three Oh, each this year will start from here and end a here in the product formed like ding c l C l oh see is three possession church you create here and it's solution for Barbie in distraction if e be a three visa. I love these as it and the negative visa levies base. So the mechanism of duration Here we have I done giving three bounded Rami plus be get you This will start here curved it'll and end up for you So the product formed his if e having negative charge to be our We are and we are we are insofar Parsi in this region in si of three. He's a levies as it and chlorine and I in Easa loves this. So the mechanism of the reaction like aluminium having three bounded chlorine and chlorine plus chlorine and I and this will start here and end up here and product formed ammonium chlorine, chlorine coloring having and I am and C o

Hello today were doing chapter six problem forty two. And from gives us this reaction skin here, too. Radical reactions, including indicate from these single electrons. And they asked us to draw the creamier mechanism showing the movement ofthe thes left charts. So you know that we have a methane castle. Look, you here and chloride radical, and we want to go to this carbon radical within HCL radical here so we'd identify what the nuclear file it is here in this radical mechanism. Actually, there's no official nickel fall since nickel fall down its two electrons. But here, each radical Jerries are donates one other chance. So we know that, um, actually, this is not a radical, It's just period. Let's get to know. So we know that one electron of the signal bonds and we donated funds chlorine radical, and we want to make HCL, so we know single bond is composed of tool out transfer. One of these electrons is gonna be donated from this hydrogen carbon bond to form our HCL. Well, the other left. China is going to go onto a carbon nucleus to form our carbon radical. So here we have kind of a conservation of radicals. You can say we started off with one radical on the end, off with one around, even though the whole kitchen radical changed. Here, use this clear out of school and one electron off a single bomb from carbon hydrogen to form a signal bond between chlorine hydrogen, former HBO acid. And then the other election went onto a carbon nucleus, as you can see here. So now be ass is conflict after ages and bond association energies in the table. So we know that the Delta each of the reaction equals is some of that. Each of the reactant spine is the sound of each of the products. Or, you can say the son ofthe Delta H of bonds being broken. And your reactions are breaking bonds minus the sum of the Asia bonds being formed, obviously a product's air forming bonds. So this is another way of saying it. So we know that you're breaking one Chlorine Arjun Bond. Right here, as you can see. So we're breaking one. Sorry. Carbon hydrogen bond raving one carbon hydrogen bond. Does you see right here? So are breaking that for thirty five killer jewels from wall and we are forming one chlorine hydrogen bond here, which gives us four hundred thirty one Kalitta. Lt's for more. Remember, I need to put a minus. Sign here because we're attracting these. So if I add up thes together, I get adult th other total reaction equaling positive for kill it. Jules Permal. So what does this tell me? So this tells me that this reaction is an organic. This means that the reactions are lower energy, more stable and more abundant than the certain than the products on the products are higher energy by Fort Illegible Prum old than you're starting material. See, Asas had drawn energy diagram assuming that the activation energy is sixteen collegial. So the star energy diagrams remember why access y axis is our energy increase of energy as you go often waxes and x axis Is your reaction progressions whisking you? Community reaction, cornets, reaction, progression time, anything that indicates every going from Surrey material to product. So because we know this is an endo thermic reaction, we know that a stirring material isn't the lower energy, then our product so starting materials and the lower energy than our product with the energy difference between the two being four. Killa Jules promote It's positive for Kala jewels as equals Delta H, and we know that the activation energy between them is sixteen Killah jewels from are significantly larger. So we know that activation energy from starting material all the way to the transition state the highest energy level. That's our Activision Energy, which is sixteen killed Jules for more and obviously weaken labelled transition state. That's a spot where bonds are being formed and broken. So obviously your star material bonds or breaking while your product bones or formal. So what is the activation energy for the reverse reaction? Well, we know the total energy from starting detail to activation energy trans transition state of sixteen Killa jewels From all we know that the products sorry mental product is for cultural from old difference. So a reverse reaction, your product and starting materials energy levels do not change. Stay as they are, but we're just going in the opposite direction. So we're starting from the products and ending off a stirring material. So now you have to fish Energy is from our products or now, which is called the reactions now. So on the label. This now is our and this is s and certainly this as ah on Pier, our reactions to our certain material. Now, this is our new activation energy. So what is this equal to? So we know the total is sixteen. We know that the difference from his products to starting material is four. So sixty minus four equals twelve. So in new activation, energy is twelve Kalid jewels from all. But if you notice there's no change of Delta H, the only thing is now Delta H becomes minus four. Kill it, Jules. Because now our products is going to be lower energy than it started. Me too, because we reverse this reaction.


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