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As the national government has increased its voiced approval forthe HPV vaccine known as Gardasil, many organizations have begungathering data to address the rise i...

Question

As the national government has increased its voiced approval forthe HPV vaccine known as Gardasil, many organizations have begungathering data to address the rise in the prevalence of young girlsreceiving the vaccine. Suppose a research team estimates that thevaccine prevalence in the country is about 45%. To test thisassumption, the researcher conducts a thorough sampling effort andfinds that out of 3,579 women in the demographic surveyed, 1,789reported receiving the vaccine. Conduct a 5-step f

As the national government has increased its voiced approval for the HPV vaccine known as Gardasil, many organizations have begun gathering data to address the rise in the prevalence of young girls receiving the vaccine. Suppose a research team estimates that the vaccine prevalence in the country is about 45%. To test this assumption, the researcher conducts a thorough sampling effort and finds that out of 3,579 women in the demographic surveyed, 1,789 reported receiving the vaccine. Conduct a 5-step formal test to determine if the proportion of women receiving the vaccine is larger than the estimated 45% at α=0.10



Answers

The vaccine Gardasil that targets human papilloma virus (HPV), the etiological agent of genital warts, was developed after the anti-HPV medication podofilox. Why would doctors still want a vaccine created after anti-viral medications were available?

In this problem, we're going to be looking at a clinical child conducted on Children, and we'll be testing whether the requirements for her positives tests are satisfied. So in this case, we have to check for the three requirements are satisfied. Number one is that the sample proportions are from two simple random samples and according to the the problem in excess way, we're told that the Children were randomly assigned to two groups, and so that confirms that the fast requirement satisfied, which is that the sample proportions are from two random samples. Next, we need to verify that the two samples are independent, which means that if the sample values are selected from one population are not related to the other, then we can see that they're independent. And in that in this case we have Children who are given silk silk vaccine for polio and those who are given the possible. And from that we can see that the samples are independent, so the second requirement is also satisfied. Lastly, we need to check that for each of the two samples, there are a twist, five successes and at least five failures. So if we check the successes for the first group, the number is 33 on for the second group, the number is 115 on both numbers are greater than five, so the number of successes is in each case is greater than five. So we can say that there are more. Have fun, five successes in each sample. Now we need to check that there are at least five failures in each off the samples, and when we check the number from the data, we see that the the first group consisted of 201 1002 129 Children. And when we subtracted three, the number will still be greater than five on. On the other hand, for the placebo we have 200 1007 145 minus 115 which is also greater than greater than five. So that means that there are more than five failures in each sample, so we'll see these three requirements satisfied. Then we can conclude that, uh, we can conduct hypotheses test to test the clean that the rest off polio iss less for Children. Given the sulk Fuxing because all the requirements are satisfied

Well. There is no cure for HPV or human papilloma virus. The president's and young women may be decreasing for several reasons. First, the advances made in antiviral medications can maintain the doorman or latent phase of the virus, resulting in less lesions and less chances of coming into contact with contagious fluid medicines. Also, maybe more available or cheaper, which would allow more people access and more cases of Layton rather than active virus. Second, it is also possible the young women are having less sex that in the past, or that they're having more safe sex. Using protective measures like condoms and dental dams reduces the chance of coming into contact with contagious fluid or other sources of the virus. Third, it is possible the higher levels of testing and better understanding of the need and benefits of testing has resulted in these lower levels of a tree. If more people know about their HPV status, they can take necessary precautions to protect their partners so that new infections are limited

Okay, So this question is asking about a study done where the users of world contraceptives have higher rates of cervical cancer than nonusers. Um, and it's concluded that basically the pill causes cervical cancer. Um, support is asking if this is a observational study or controlled experiment and it is an observational study. And the reason for this is because, um, the investigators aren't actually putting any kind of treatment on subjects and look in the effects. They're just observing data that's already around them on there, just analyzing data that they see around them. They're not actually putting any kind of treatment on subjects and the king and the effects. So it's definitely an observation city. Um, part B is saying, Why did the investigators adjust for age education medals? That is. And that's to avoid what soon as confounding factors and confounding factors are essentially outside factors that may affect what you see, the man back your results. And if they exist and you can't really be sure, you they might have affected the results. And you can't really be sure that in this case you couldn't really be sure that use of oral contraceptives has in effect on rates of cervical cancer. If you don't adjust for age education, parasite is cause, you know, just for these, then these factors might really be the cause behind the rates of cervical cancer. Not actually, um, the use of oral contraceptives. Parsi is asking, saying women using the pill, we're likely to differ from the user's on another factor, which affects the risk of cervical cancer. What actress that And that factor is gonna be sexual activity. Um, because women who use it are more likely to have, um, more so pill users tend to have more sexual activity, which leads to more things like HPV sharing stuff like that, and that causes increased rate of cervical cancer. Um, so this is this is just saying that it might not necessarily be this pill that's causing this cervical cancer, but instead the type of person who's using this pill just has a lot of sex. And that's what's causing uh, cervical cancer. A party is saying where they include into the study, justified by the data, Answer yes or no and explain briefly on no, on. The main reason for this is going to be that the, um the difference is the difference. Joan was not between like Brandon groups. The whole thing wasn't really randomized enough to really justify that conclusion. And also, um, and also Parsi. Um, let me write that, Percy, because again, impressive. We already established that it might just be sexual activity that's causing these different rates of cervical cancer, not the pill, so that this entire thing can't really substantiate or support. The investigators claim that, um, world contraceptives cause cervical cancer. Hope that felt.


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