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Question 292 ptsRefer to the diagram below to help you answer the following question. When growing bacteria on an agar plate with , different household cleansers a...

Question

Question 292 ptsRefer to the diagram below to help you answer the following question. When growing bacteria on an agar plate with , different household cleansers applied to paper disks, what does the zone of inhibition refer to?The amount ot houschald ckser that Is applled to thc puper disks.The species of bacteria that Used on the pluteTht cler area around the paper dlst whiere bacteria cinnot gow,Tha piper disk that ha; wrater applied t0Tha401 on the JRar plate where the bacterla are abk t0 g

Question 29 2 pts Refer to the diagram below to help you answer the following question. When growing bacteria on an agar plate with , different household cleansers applied to paper disks, what does the zone of inhibition refer to? The amount ot houschald ckser that Is applled to thc puper disks. The species of bacteria that Used on the plute Tht cler area around the paper dlst whiere bacteria cinnot gow, Tha piper disk that ha; wrater applied t0 Tha401 on the JRar plate where the bacterla are abk t0 grow.



Answers

Mode of Action of Sulfa Drugs Some bacteria require $p$ -aminobenzoate in the culture medium for normal growth, and their growth is severely inhibited by the addition of sulfanilamide, one of the earliest sulfa drugs. Moreover, in the presence of this drug, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; see Fig. 22-35) accumulates in the culture medium. These effects are reversed by addition of excess $p$ aminobenzoate. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY) (a) What is the role of $p$ -aminobenzoate in these bacteria? (Hint: See Fig. $18-16 .$ ) (b) Why does AICAR accumulate in the presence of sulfanilamide? (c) Why are the inhibition and accumulation reversed by addition of excess $p-$ aminobenzoate?

So we're looking at the disk diffusion essay If we have a large zone of inhibition, what does this indicate of the test micro to the chemical disinfectant? So remember for this, we have an aide our plates, we have some chemical disinfectants and then we have these zones around them of inhibition and the larger the zone were more sensitive. The microbe is to that particular suspected. So, if we have a very large sort of inhibition, that indicates sensitivity, the microbe is sensitive to be chemical disinfectant. So one potential use of this is say you have a bacterial infection that is not responding to treatment. You can take a sample of that bacterium and place it and then use this method with various, perhaps antibiotics to see which might actually treat the infection.

On the image off the given caution. It is absurd. Able that plate that only have ampicillin resistant bacteria includes played number four, and the correct answer is option C.

Okay, So 63 here we have this hypothetical experiment where we have grown equal I two ways and two strains. So either with without antibiotic and East train, either with or without the antibiotic resistance and in particular when we look att tthe e antibiotic resistant strain. When it's grown on a plate without any antibiotic, we get a lot of growth. Okay, so it is no antibiotic, and that's the Empress Ilin. And and, uh, when it's grown with the ampicillin, it was just a few of them. And the question is, what? Why are there less of them? If all of these, in theory, have this, uh, plus news this in plasmid when we do this plasma in this process of transformation is done, you take this cell in the cell is gonna have a sort of d n a component, and it's gonna pull in from the environment, this plasmid right? And so it pulls it in from the environment and incorporate it into its own DNA. But it's quite possible, you know, that some of the cells and the calling didn't didn't pull it in right pulling from their environment, so some of them won't do that process and we'll stay. Stay as they were. Okay, so not every cell will be successfully transformed. And that's where we get this. This difference and can that's best described then by the letter choice, eh? Correspond to that?

Okay, so here we are, given that and sub j is the number after After while 40 times j minus one minutes. Right. So and sub j, um is the number after 40 times J minus one minutes. Okay. Eso in symbols. We can say that and sub j well is equal to 40 times. Um, 40 times J minus one up so equal to 40 times J minus one. And this is for all j greater than equal toe one. So for J greater than you, No one. Okay, so we can write on DSO sub j plus one in terms of and sub J for J grades and ego, one as follows. So we have that n sub j plus one. Okay, well, that's equal to, um 40 times. Well, j plus one is just, um j plus one. So 40 times J plus one minus one. Okay. And then we just distribute here, um, where we clean up. So well, J plus one minus one is just j. So never distribute. This is just equal to just 40 times, um, 40 times J, which is 40 times J minus one plus one. So this is equal to again 40 just times J, which is equal to 40 times J minus one plus one, which is equal to 40 um, times. Well, times J minus one plus one. Right. Which, um which e commerce on twice Right to say. I just, um you might notice that I copied down the same thing twice, but this is just equal to, um, equal to 40 times J minus one plus 40 which is equal to and sub J plus 40. So again, writing it writing and sub J plus one In terms of ends up Jay, we get that this is equal to end sub J plus 40. There is and subjects one in terms off and subject. Okay, um, so now let's see. Were given that and someone is the initial number of bacteria cells. So we have that, and someone is the initial number. Bacterial cells and sub two is the number of bacteria's number of bacteria after 40 minutes. So here we have initial. And then after 40 minutes, andan ends up three is after, um, and so on. Right. And with that end, someone we were given that end, someone is, um, 230 So, you know, the ends of one is 230. Okay, so we know that two hours is 120 minutes, so we can break up two hours into three parts as follows. So we have that, too. Hours is equal to well, 40 minutes, Um, plus 40 minutes. So that's what, 80 minutes, right? Plus another 40 minutes. Right. Um, which is, well, 120 minutes, which is two hours. Okay, so after two hours, the number of bacteria will be on did sub three. So from the, um, equation, we have that end sub j plus one is equal to again and sub J plus 40 right from party. Um, and then we confined and sub two and and sub three so and sub two is just gonna be equal to ends of one plus 40. So that's 2 30 plus 40 which is to 70 and then for end sub three or ends up three is just equal to end sub to write plus 40. So that's gonna be equal Thio to 70 plus 40 which is equal to 310. So therefore, after two hours, the number of bacteria And sub three here will be 310 after again after two hours. Right. Um and then, um Well, we could make a chart here for the next part here, so we can evaluate ends of one ends up to ends up three up two ends up seven recursive lee by basically a table so we could have our our j and then our end Sub j Okay. And we have here well, and J is one we know that ends of one is, um 2. 30. So we have that and someone is 2. 30 right? Our initial value here is 2. 30 and then we just use this recursive Lee, we just basically add 40 for every j. So we have when Jay is too. We have ends up to is just equal to 2. 30 plus 40. So that's 2. 70 and so on. We just add 40 so we can get an, uh, wins. Jay's three. We have that ends up three is just equal to 2. 70 plus 40. That's 3 10 and then you go keep going here. So when j is four, we have that n sub four is equal to just 3. 10 plus 40. So that's 3. 50 and you can continue here and for this out. When it is five, we have the three ends. A five is 3 50 plus 40. So that is what? That's 3 90 and what? Two more here. So when n when Jay is six, we have the end. Sub six is equal to 3. 90 plus 40. So that's 4. 30. And when j. S seven we have the ends of seven is equal to 4. 30 plus 40. That's 4 70. Okay. Eso they would evaluate and step one through ends up seven recursive lee in our table here. Um and well, then, if we graph this sequence so and sub j for J equals one up to seven again by using the window from zero 10. The closed interval here from 0 to 10 on Ben, um, 0 to 15,000. Um, well, would have our table. That would look are our graph here, which would look something like this. So we have one through seven. So we have, um, j values one to three for 56 seven. Okay. On ben, we go from on r R y axis. Here we go from here is 1000 and then, um, because 15,000. So let's say 1000. That's maybe up here today. 5000, 10,000 and 15,000. Uh, oops. 15,000. I had ah, hopes. I don't know. Strata wrists. There we Oh. Um Well, okay, so the the the growth of bacteria will increase as as Jay goes up. Okay, But on this table, um, well, so when jay was one, right, we were where we were, like, 2. 30. Right on. We're going up. We're gonna very I mean, we don't get very high here on a graph at all. Um, we're gonna look something. Something like this. Eso from the from the table and the diagram given we can see that the growth of the bacteria will increase right as Jay goes up. So when there are unlimited nutrients, the growth off the bacteria population will grow. We'll go faster


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